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University of Toronto St. George
Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry
Susan Mc Cahan

APS 111 NOTES Chapter 1 Engineering Design • Engineering Design It is a systematic, intelligent process in which designers generate, evaluate and specify designs for devices, systems or processes whose forms and functions achieve clients’ objectives and users’ needs while satisfying a specified set of constraints. • Form The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its material. • Function The action for which a person or thing is specially fitted or used or for which a thing exists. Functions are what the designed device, system or process is supposed to do, the actions that it must perform. NOTE: Function can be deduced from form, but form can not be deduced from function. • Objective Something toward which effort is directed; an aim or end of action. Objectives are expressions of the attributes and behavior that the client or potential users would like to see in a designed system or device. They are normally expressed as what the design should “be”. • Constraint The state of being checked, restricted, or compelled to avoid or perform some action. Constraints are restrictions or limitations on a behavior or a value or some other aspect of a designed object’s performance. • Means An agency, instrument, or method used to attain an end. Means or implementations are ways of executing those functions that the design must perform. • Metric A standard of measurement; in the context of engineering design, a scale on which the achievement of a design’s objectives can be measured and assessed. • Requirement A thing wanted or needed; thing essential to the existence or occurrence of something else; in the context of engineering design, engineering statements of the functions that must be exhibited and the attributes that must be displayed by a design. • Engineering design problems are ill structured because their solutions cannot normally be found by applying mathematical formulas or algorithms in a routine or structured way. Engineering design problems are open-ended because they typically have several acceptable solutions. • Concurrent Engineering The process in which designers, manufacturing specialists, and those concerned with the product’s life cycle (e.g., purchase, support, use and maintainence) work together, along with other design stakeholders, so that they can collectively and concurrently design the artifact together. • Project Management The process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. • Planning The process of setting goals and deciding how best to achieve them. • Organizing The process of allocating and arranging human and non human resources so that plans can be carried out successfully. • Leading The ongoing activity of exerting influence and using power to motivate others to work toward reaching organizational goals. • Controlling The process of monitoring and regulating the progress of an organization toward achieving its goals. • Project A one-time activity with a well defined set of desired end results. Chapter 2 The Design Process • The simplest descriptive model of the design process defines three phases: (i) Generation – The designers generates or creates various design concepts. (ii) Evaluation – The designer tests the chosen design against metrics that reflect the clients’ objectives and against requirements that stipulate how the design must function. (iii) Communication – The designer communicates the final design to the client and to manufacturers or fabricators. • Five-Stage Descriptive Linear Model of Design Process. Descriptive models describe the elements of the design process: Pre: Client’s Problem Statement (i) Problem Definition - A pre-processing stage that frames the problem by clarifying the client’s original problem statement before conceptual design begins. (ii) Conceptual Design – Different concepts are generated to achieve the client’s objectives. (iii) Preliminary Design – Concepts are “fleshed out”, i.e; we hang the meat of some preliminary choices upon the abstract bones of the conceptual design. (iv) Detailed Design – Choices from the preliminary design are refined, articulating the final choice in far greater detail, down to specific part type and dimensions. (v) Design Communication – Identifies the work done after detailed design to collect, organize, and present the final design and its fabrication specifications. Post: Documentation for Final Design • Five-Stage Prescriptive Linear Model for Design Process. Prescriptive models prescribe what must be done during the design process. Pre: Client’s Problem Statement (i) Problem Definition (Framing) – Clarify Objectives, establish metrics for objectives, identify constraints and revise client’s problem statement. (ii) Conceptual Design – Establish functions, establish requirements (function specs), establish means for functions, generate design alternatives and choose a design. (iii) Preliminary Design – Model and analyze chosen design, test and evaluate chosen design. (iv) Detailed Design – Refine and optimize chosen design, and assign and fix design details. (v) Design Communication – Document final design. Post: Documentation for final design (Reports, Drawings, Fabrication Specifications). • Problem Definition A pre-processing stage that frames the problem by clarifying the client’s original problem statement before conceptual design begins. • Feedback It is the process of feeding information about the output of a process back into the process so it can be used to obtain better results. It occurs in two notable ways during the design process. (i) Internal feedback loops that come during the design process. (ii) External feedback loop that comes after the design reaches its intended market. • Benchmarking Designers look at similar products that are already available and try to evaluate how well those products perform certain functions or exhibit certain features. • Reverse Engineering (Dissection) Designers dissect or take competitive products apart to determine why a given product or device was designed the way it was, with the intention of finding better ways of performing the same or similar sub-functions. • Prototype A prototype or a test unit embodies the principal functional characteristics of the final design, even though it may not look at all like the expected end product. They are very useful for lab tests and simulations. • The Four Phase Project Management Model (i) Project Definition or Scoping – Developing an initial understanding of the design problem and its associated project. (ii) Project Framing – Developing and applying a plan to do the design project. (iii) Project Scheduling – Organizing the plan in light of time and other resource constraints (iv) Project Tracking, Evaluation and Control – Keeping track of time work and cost. • Five Stages of Group Development (i) Forming (i
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