Study Guides (238,207)
Canada (115,009)
Classics (214)
CLA230H1 (24)

CLA230 Midterm 2 Study Review.docx

21 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Dimitri Nakassis

February 6 Solon and Lycurgus Solon -Poetry attributed to Solon -Herodotus 1.29-33 (not in Thucydides) -(Aristotle) Constitution of the Athenians (Ath. Pol.) -Aristotle, Politics -Athenian orators -Plutarch’s Life of Solon Some doubtful Solonian Traditions -Herodotus: Solon (After drawing up law for Athens) travelled for 10 years, and visited Amasis in Egypt and Croesus in Sardis -Solon was archon in Athens 594/3 BC -Croesus was king of Lydia 560-547 BC -Amasis was pharaoh in Egypt 570-526 BC Athenian coin (silver tetradrachm) Council of 400: Aristotle -council of 400, with 100 men drawn from each tribe, assigned the council of the Areopagu to guard the laws, just as previously it had been guardian of the constitution. Council of 400: Plutarch Council of 400 in 411 BC -Oligarchic counter-revolution -Cancellation of pay for political office -list of 5000 wealthiest Athenians -council of 400 (interim government) -some political killing, fear and suspicion The rule of thirty (404 BC) -another oligarchic regime Solon as founder of Athenian Democracy -the greatest democrat of all, Solon -Solon, who equipped the democracy with the noblest laws Lycurgus Chronology -Xenophon: contemporary of the sons of Herakles -Herodotus: guardian of King Labotas -Aristotle: co-founder of 1 Olympic games (776 BC) Ephors King Agis IV (244-241 BC) -reformer (only 7—Spartiates in 250 BC?) -proposed a redistribution of 4500 plots for Spartiates and 15000 for perioikoi -sentenced to death by the ephors -wrongly called Agis III in textbook King Cleomenes III 235-222, 219 BC -tried to continue the reforms of Agis IV -but power was in the hands of the ephors -so he murdered four of the five, removes the seats of the ephors except one (which he sat in) -Cleomenes told the Spartans “that Lycurgus had blended the power of senate and kings and that for a long time the state was administered in this way”; ephors invented later when the kings were away on long campaigns in Messenia Solon created the council of 400, with 100 men from each Ionic tribe- deliberated on public matters, set schedule for assembly February 11 th Archaic Greece II Chapter 9 The Archaic Cultural Revolution, 800-480 BC -Archaic poleis were small, open societies -aristocrats made political decisions through discussion in councils- during 6 th century, councils expanded to include more citizens -Early in first mil. BC, Greeks had settles in what is now western Turkey, emigrating through Athens- to escape the problems of Dark Age mainland Greece Greek colonization, ca. 550 BC Causes of colonization? -carrots vs sticks -land hunger? -increasing population -famine -inheritance -political disputes -trade, resources, etc Cyrene (631 BC) -ancient Greek colony Herodotus- account of the Persian invasions of Greece- born around the end of Archaic times (484 BC)- book is not history- wished to preserve the memory of mens great deeds, much like Homer did is Iliad. – made up speeches at vital moments in the story- style resembles Homers. Presence of Gods in texts. - one told by people of Cyrene and other by the people of Thera.- two foundation sources Herodotus: Theran Story: - What the Therans say -King Grinnas consulted the oracle at Delphi ‘on other matters’ -the oracle orders him to found a colony in Libya -no rain on Thera for next 7 years -Corobius of Itanos, Island of Platea -Therans resolved to send 1 of 2 brothers -Battus as expedition leader, king of future colony Herodotus: Cyrenean Story: -What the Cyreneans say -Etearchus, King of Oaxos, daughter Phronime -Battus, ‘the stammerer’ (a Libyan word for ‘king’) -Pythia commands a colony in Libya -Battus tries to return to Thera after failture -Settlement of Island of Platea Comparison of the two different Stories: Similarities -Consultations with Delphi -Battus was the leader of the colonial foundation -first settlement at Platea Differences -Theran story emphasizes the role of the city -Cyrenean story emphasized the role of Battus Herodotus conclusion: -failure of the Platea settlement -Aziris: 6 years, then relocated to Irasa -Cyrenean invitation for settlers under King Battus II Eudaimon (late 6 cth BC) -Egyptian expedition against Cyrene defeated (Phaeaoh Apries) Cyrene 630BC - was an ancient Greek colony- colony of the Greek island town Thera- now Libya Cyrene was founded in c.630 BCE as a colony of the Greek island town Thera, which had become (or was perceived to be) too crowded. The first colonists settled at an island called Platea in front of the Libyan coast (modern Bomba). Later, they occupied a coastal strip called Aziris, and finally, after concluding a treaty with the native Libyans, they founded the town Cyrene, the capital of the fertile Cyrenaica. The "Fountain of Apollo" offered sufficient water for a flourishing city. -leader of the settlers was Battus silphium(a plant) -Oracle at Delphi- most important shrine- asked questions to it- King Grinnus consulted it- Oracle said he should found a city in Libya- Therans didn’t know King Arkesilas II of Cyrene (mid 6 c BC) Temple of Apollo at Delphi (4 c BC)- Delphi, where Apollo had his shrine- was damaged by fire- rebuilt multiple times- earthquake. The Pythia Early Greek pottery found prior to foundation of Cyrene Early pottery from Cyrene includes pottery from Sparta, Thera, Crete Chapter 9 Notes- Poleis- small open societies-aristocrats made political decisions through discussion in councils-open in other senses- some members travelled bringing home new ideas from overseas. Kosmos- “ordered whole” Monday, February 11, 2013 Greek Colonization, ca. 550 BC  What information do we have about the Archaic period and how do we go about it deciding what’s real and what’s not? How do we sort through the information?  We’re still talking about Archaic Greece. We have a rapid expansion of Greek speaking populations into most parts of the Mediterranean. We’re most focusing on what’s happening on the Aegean (what’s now Greek mainland)  The fact that you have Greece in the Mediterranean is important for Roman culture; a lot of Italians are influenced by Greek culture because they’re living right next to them. A Homeric colony?  We have some evidence of it already in Homer.  We’re told that “God-like Nausithoos left and led a migration, and settled in Scheria, far away from men who eat bread, and drove a wall about the city, and built the houses, and made the temples od the gods, and allotted the holdings.” o Weird people who Odyssius hangs out before coming back. A lot of people said that this looks like how colonization was later formed.  You have a mother city that sends a colony of the place. Corinth is the mother colony of Syracuse. What do you do when you get to the colony? The leader: the oikois.  Evenly-sized plots are allocated to the people in the colony. Temples/Sanctuaries are often built quite early after the colony is founded.  In some colonies, we can actually see the initial allocation of land to the colonist. Megara Hyblaia, street plan with agora (650-625 BC)  Colony of Megara (between Athens and Corinth)  Street plan of the city. It’s not exactly a grid plan, but basically, for some blocks, you have some equally sized blocks. These aren’t exactly planned communities. Causes of colonization?  We might be interested in understanding why this happened. Why these colonies? Why so many?  Carrots vs. sticks o Carrots are positive things. Sticks are negative incentives – you do something because if you don’t, the government will fine you or something like that. o So what is driving colonization? Positive incentives or negative incentives?  We can imagine a case where colonization provides economic opportunities.  Negative: you’re a political refugee. If you don’t get out of Libya, you will die. o Are they expanding out west because there are better agricultural land? Or are these people who have lost out? We’ve talked about partheniai (people were sent to Teras to establish new land there) o We can also see a causal chain; combine all of the problems.  Land hunger? o Increasing population o Famine o Inheritance  You split land among all of your children. But at some point, your land is going to be so small that it doesn’t make sense to split it. So there will be disputes. o Political disputes  People trying to push for more political rights, they’re not given them, so if they’re not willing to live as non-citizens, you can go to somewhere else.  These all are mostly negative explanations.  Trade, resources, etc. o More positive explanation. Cyrene (631 BC)  Looking at specific cities about when, how, and why they were colonized.  Cyrene is the Archaic community that we have the most information on. Cyrene is now in Libya.  Thera is the mother city of Cyrene. o Akrotiri on Thera, the volcano erupted. But Thera’s recolonized; Dorian colony; they connected themselves to Sparta. Cyrene and silphium  Enormously successful. Probably because it was the only site for this herb called silphium. This herb is now extinct. Most people think that it’s something as fennel. It was used both as a medicine and a vegetable. Cyrene had a monopoly on silphium.  So Cyrene is one of the colonies that is more successful than other cities.  Not really the biggest poleis that sends out colonies. So it’s often the case that the colony that it becomes more successful than the mother city. th King Arkesilas II of Cyrene (mid 6 c BC)  What’s interesting about Cyrene is that for most the Archaic and Classical periods, it was ruled by Kings.  He’s sitting on the throne and he’s watching over the weighing of Silphium. Sources for colonization of Cyrene  Pindar: two victory poems for King Arkesilas (IV) in chariot victory at Delphi (462 BC) o Pindar wrote victory poems for athletic victors  Herodotus: two foundation stories, one told by people of Cyrene, the other by the people of Thera o Two different stories and two different accounts; this is good.  4 century BC inscription from Cyrene o Tells us about the terms of the colonization.  Other fragmentary sources and archaeology o We’re going to go through all the sources and talk about the discrepancies in the sources. Herodotus: Theran story  What the Therans say (4.150-3): o King Grinnas consulted the oracle at Delphi “on other matters” o The oracle orders him to found a colony in Libya o He ignores the Oracle. No rain on Thera for next 7 years. o The Therans are desperate and go to Crete to ask if anyone’s ever been to Libya. They meet Corobius of Itanos, island of Platea. o Therans resolved to send 1 of 2 brothers; which brother to go was decided by lot. o Battus (Grainnas’ son) as expedition leader, king of future colony. The Pythia  She sits on a tripod and utters miraculous pronouncements (she is commanded by Apollo) Herodotus: Cyrenean story  What the Cyreneans say (4.154-6): o Etearchus, king of Oaxo (on Crete), had a daughter Phronime (he married another woman to take care of his daughter but she is a wicked stepmother. She accused her daughter of promiscuity) o Phronmime became a concumbine to another person. o Battus, “the stammerer” (a Libyan word for “king”) o Pythia commands a colony in Libya o Battus tries to return to Thera after failure o Settlement of island of Platea Herodotus: conclusion  Faiure of the Platea settlement  Aziris: 6 years, then relocated to Irasa th  Cyrenean invitation for settlers under King Battus II Eudaimon (late 6 c BC) o Egyptian expedition against Cyrene defeated (Pharaoh Apries) Comparison of the stories  Similarities: o Consultations with Delphi  In both cases, they go to the Delphi and she tells them something else: go to Libya o Battus the leader of the colonial foundation o First settlement at Platea  Differences o Therean story emphasizes the role of the city  Battus in the Theran story is just some guy who’s accompanying the older king. The older King waives the other end and says, pick someone else and points to Battus. o Cyrenean story emphasizes the role of Battus  This was this fairy tale about Battus and his mother’s evil step- mother. Battus is really the grandson of the Cretan king. Pindar, Pythian 5 (462 BC)  Emphasizes the role of Battus “And (Battus) founded precincts of the gods that were greater than before, and he established, for the processions of Apollo, protector of men, a straight cut, level, paved road for the clatter of horses’ hooves, where at the edge of the marketplace he rests by himself in death. He was blessed when he dwelled among men, and thereafter a hero worshipped by the people.”  Normal that the oikios is buried in the city. Only heros could be buried in the city; everyone else has to be buried outside. More Pythian 5 “Ye the ancient prosperity of Battus continues, despite its dispensation of both good and bad, a tower of the city and a most brilliant shining eye to strangers. Even loud-roaring lions fled in fear from Battus, when he unleashed on them his voice from across the sea. And Apollo, the first leader, doomed the beasts to dread fear, so that his oracles to the guardian of Cyrene would not go unfulfilled.”  There is this image as Cyrene prior to Battus’ arrival that its full of lions and that Battus comes in and civilizes it. And Apollo is behind him.  Cyrene is ruled by Kings and these Kings came from Battus (thereotically). 4 c BC inscription  Erected in Cyrene; at this point, Cyrene is no longer a monarchy (starting in 440 BC). More of a democracy.  Therans given citizenship at Cyrene in accordance with rules set down in the original colonization of Cyrene. o In a poleis, it’s impossible to become a citizen of another poleis. Here, in this inscription, they have the right to go to Cyrene and attain citizenship. If you want to, you can go to Cyrene and be given a plot of land.  Apollo told Battus and Thera to colonize Libya  One son is to be conscripted to go to Cyrene (no cheating or else you die.)  If colony successful, kinsmen can join later  If not, colonists can return to Thera  Curse on those who do not abide by agreement. th o The inscription is interesting; it’s written much later (4 century BC). But it claims that it contains the original terms of the colonization. o This story basically agrees with the Theran story that Herodotus tells us.  Battus, one son conscripted.  Therans are super helpful in this story; if things are bad in 5 years, we’ll take you bad. End of the Battiad dynasty: 440 BC  By the end of the 5 century, Battiad is no longer ruling over Cyrene. By the end of the 5 century, it’s more of an oligarchy democracy. Menekles of Barke (3 c BC) rd  3 century historian of Barke (city in Libya) “Menekles says that … the citizens of Thera fell into civil strife and became estranged from each other, and that Battus was leader of one of the factions. When the struggle of the factions ended, the result was that Battus’ party was driven from the city and fled the country… Battus went to Delphi and asked asked whether they should carry on the internal struggle or should establish a colony elsewhere.”  Menakles introduces this possibility that’s not raised in other stories: that the colonization came about because of civil strife – like Partheniai and Sparta  But Menakles lived in Barke, which was founded because of political strife. So he might have reason to believe that Cyrene was very similar. Pausanias (2 c AD)  He’s writing a travel guide and roaming Greece. “In Sparta, ‘you will see a slab, on which are written the victories in the foot-race won, at Olympia, by Chionis, a Lacedaemonian. The Olympian victories were seven, four in the single-stade race and three in the double-stade race. … It is said that Chonis also took part in the expedition of Battus of Thera, helped him to found Cyrene and to reduce the neighbouring Libyans.’”  Here we have potentially some evidence of Spartan involvement in the finding of the colony.  People from different parts of the Greek world coming together to find this colony. Lindian chronicle (99 BC)  Inscription that lists a bunch of dedications in the temple of Athena A dedication “on which had been inscribed: ‘those of the Lindians who with the children of Panis founded a colony of Cyrene with Battus, to Athena and to Herakles a tenth of the plunder which they took from […]”  The point of the inscription is that the Lindians are dedicating a tenth of the plunder which they took from some place to Athena and Herakles  If you take plunder after a battle or a huge windfall of prophets because of some expedition, you will attempt a tenth to the gods.  So you don’t just have Spartans, but you have Lindians involved as well. You have one city Thera and one oikios (Battus) but you also have other people joining them (Sparta and Lindian) Archaeology  Early Greek pottery found prior to foundation of Cyrene (early 7 c. BC) o We have this theory that Therans didn’t know where Libya was. But th this seems bogus because a lot of the pottery found there in the 7 century (prior to foundation of colony), was Spartan pottery – Theran pottery. o Eraly pottery from Cyrene includes pottery from Sparta, Thera, Crete  What can we extract from this story if anything? A lot of agreement and disagreement. We have 2 stories from Herodotus. Then we have Pindar who supports Cyrenean story (but he might just be satisfying the King). Then inscription, supports Cyrenean. But it’s also flawed.  Inscription is written later, during a period where there are no longer kings. If there are no longer kings, you don’t have to emphasize Battus because you don’t have to kiss their butts. You want to emphasize the connections between mother city and colony. The 4 century inscription maybe doesn’t reflect what they used to do, it was just a convenient story to tell at that time. Oral tradition and Greek history “So, using traditions to write history demands an acute awareness of the fact that men are doing things with traditions. Sometimes doing something with a tradition means preserving valuable information…. [but] on many occasions tradition promotes disinformation.”  We need to think about why people are telling these stories. Only by asking this question will we be able to tell what’s valuable information and what’s disinformation.  This whole story about Battus’ mother and how she is sold to a guy. We can reject it. But it’s the kind of story that you would want to tell if you’re related to Battus. Battus is a special guy; he was really a grandson of a king.  It’s hard to extract a lot of details as a result.  If you’re a Theran living in the 5 century BC, you want to be connected to Cyrene because it’s so successful.  Stories served political services and doesn’t have to reflect historical truth. If you’re Cyrenian, you want to say that Therans didn’t do anything, threw rocks at you when you tried to come back.  It seems likely that there is involvement from Crete, Sparta, and Rhodes. Those elements seem to be authentically true; it’s harder to know though, why the colony was sent in the first place and how the city dealt with it. We have to be careful when analyzing “historical” texts; people writing them during that period are using them for their advantage. The texts tell us more about the people than history itself. February 13 th Persia and Marathon Chapter 11 The Battle of Marathon, 490 BC Nineveh: Sacked in 612 BC by Medes and Babylonians Cyrus the Great, 559-529 BC King Croesus (560-546 BC) Conquest of Babylon (539 BC) Achmaemenid Kings: -Cyrus the Great 559-529 -Cambyses 529-522 -Smerdis 522-521 -Darius I 521-486 Persian Tribute -20 Satrapies -Total tribute: 14,560 talents of silver -1 talent=25.9KG, 6, 000 drachmai, 1 trireme for 1 month The Cyrus Cylinder (530 BC)- Persian Empire The Ionian revolt (499-494)- Persian Empire The Battle of Lade, 494 BC -353 Ionian triremes(ships) vs. 6
More Less

Related notes for CLA230H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.