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Midterm Key Terms (ch 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10)

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University of Toronto St. George
Dimitri Nakassis

Sunday October 911Introduction to Greek HistoryD NakassisKey TermsLegendBolded and underlined whether in black or red or blueLikely to appear on examUnderlinedKey term from bookUnderlined and redKey term from lectureUnderlined and blueKey term from lecture and bookNote I have included all keywords as they may or may not aid in other parts of the exam not just definitionsChapter 1A Small FarOff LandHerodotusLived around 480s420s BCGreek man living in HalicarnassusHis book Histories which may not be very accurate does tell us a lot about Greek life at the timeHe wrote to record great human deeds so that they may not be forgottenThere was an emphasis on the male spheres of action political and military the Persian War especiallyHe was interested in Greeks as well as nonGreeksHe is later criticized for thisHe is interested in causes of events and why things happened the way that they didHe was born around the time of the Persian War and therefore not an eyewitness to most of what he writes onHe gathered different stories and stitched them togetheran oral historyA lot of bias in oral history so he had to sort through different versionsHe is useful to modern historians because he will tell multiple versions of the same eventSometimes tells us which he believes to be correct he would apply logic to determine whether the account was plausible or notAlong with history he is interested in culture geography geology the workings of the gods and the fantasticHe is named the father of historyGreek ProblemMost Greeks thought that the gods were powerful and wise and that only a few oracles and priests had access to themThis access was open to challenge however and could not be used to dominate othersGreece doesnt have one religious authority well organized priesthood to create orthodoxy not spiritual leaders or central sacred booksThese conditions created a fundamental conflict called the Greek ProblemA set of conditions with which Greek thinkers struggledWithout gods to rule and reveal the truth it was concluded that human reason was the only guide to truthSunday October 911Introduction to Greek HistoryD NakassisKey Terms If no king had special access to the truth then all men must be roughly equally qualified todiscuss it Therefore the only source of good decisions must be the whole male communityOther Greeks drew different conclusions from Greek problemsElites should rule could be trained on behalf of whole community to skillfully reasonThis diversity produced two resultsConstant intercity warfare as different poleis promoted own visionsThinkers needed to explain how the universe worked independent of divine whim and why there was so much varietyTheir questions initiated Greek science and philosophyHellenesWhat greek speakers call themselvesLived in cities scattered from Spain to UkraineConcept of nationstate simple did not exist HellasHellenes agreed that their ancestral home was Hellas Located around the aegean seaAutochthonousMeans born from the soilHephaestus ejaculate on Athenas leg she wiped it off with a piece of wool and dropped it to the ground from which Athens sprangThey had and always lived in AthensPelasgiansMeans people of the seaOther Athenians believed that their ancestors had invaded the territory from the outsideFirst cohabiting and then expelling the people call the PelasgiansIoniansDescendants of Ion a legendary ancestorGenerally sided with Athens during the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCChapter 2Country and PeopleHesiodPoet living probably around 700 BCWrote poem of agricultural and moral advice Works and DaysWorks and DaysWritten by HesiodSunday October 911Introduction to Greek HistoryD NakassisKey TermsAgricultural and moral adviceDescribes the seasonsDemographyBy combining brief literary references to daily life that do survive with archaeology and by comparisons with other premodern societies we can sketch a credible picture of ancient greek demographyDemography revolves around facts of life in a society and the study of biological aspects of human societiesEx life expectancy health population size distribution growth rates of birth etcThucydides460390s BCAthenian aristocrat served as a general in militaryHad an unsuccessful career later exiled at which point it is likely he wrote his historiesHe is the next major historian after HerodotusHistorian of Peloponnesian WarUnlike Herodotus he was actually alive and present during the warAs it is his war he says its the biggest and greatestUnlike Herodotus he weeds out stories he finds mythical and very rarely gives more than one accountTakes mythological and traditional and rationalizes and modernizes itHe was a critical thinkerWe cant know whether or not his chosen version is correct because he does not give alternatesSometimes there is a sense that he is leaving something outWeeds through the discrepancies of different eyewitnesses to find the most accurate versionHe is not interested in great stories takes a more analytical approachShows awareness of archaeology as a way of understanding the past and was aware of its weaknessesHe thought that accurate history could be learned fromHe therefore lack romance and is much dried than HerodotusHippocratesMost famous Greek doctorLived in the later 5th century BC probably on the island of CosThis is speculated because there was a kind of hospital in classical and hellenistic times as well as a great temple to the healer god AsclepiusHe was said to have written the famous Hippocratic oath which doctors take todayFranchthi CaveProvides unbroken stratigraphic sequence from 230003200 BC
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