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CLA233 – Midterm Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Rob Mc Cutcheon

CLA233 – Midterm Notes Main Themes  Cultural Decline  Exemplum/Mos Maiorum  Struggle of Orders Important People  Livy  Roman historian who wrote “Books from the Foundation of the City”  Told the story of how a Roman should live  Provides influences and examples for Romans to follow (exemplum)  Wrote during the Principate (period of Augustus’ rule)  Wrote stories of creation (Romulus and Remus)  7 Kings of Rome 1. Romulus 2. Numas 3. Tulla 4. Ancus 5. Tarquinius 6. Servius 7. Tarquinius Superbus  During 7 and 6 centuries BCE, Rome ruled by kings (1 4 are myths, last 3 are real)  Cicero  Roman philosopher and politician  After the dictatorship of Caesar, he championed a return of the republic  Cicero’s letters  Cicero, on running for Consulship  Attacked M. Antony in a series of speeches, claiming he was a threat to Republican order  Augustus  The first emperor of the Roman Empire  Was Caesar’s heir to the throne, while M. Antony was consul  Became the sole ruler of Rome after defeating M. Antony  Leads a series of political reforms resulting in “The Roman Peace”  Augustan Laws on Marriage o Lex Julia de Maritandus Ordinibus (LJMO) o Lex Iulia Adulteriis Coercendis (LIAC) o Lex Papia Poppaea (LPP)  Served yearly as consul  Rome was seeing a shift from republic to monarchy  He was offered the dictatorship position but turned it down  Known as the patron and father of the nation  Rome under Augustan is called the Principate Important Things  Latium  The region of central western Italy in which Rome was founded  According to Livy, the Latin League protected Latium against Etruscan expansion  The 7 Hills of Rome 1. Caelian 2. Qurinal 3. Viminal 4. Esquiline 5. Capitoline 6. Aventine 7. Palentine  Carthage  North African city that the Roman Empire saw as a constant threat  This resulted in the 3 Punic Wars  The end of rde third Punic War is from when the Romans date their moral decline  After the 3 punic war, the Romans took over Carthage  The Era of Great Men  Marius vs. Gulla  Caesar vs. Pompey  Octavian vs. M. Antony  Livy’s Stories of Creation  Romulus and Remus o Their mother was claimed to be raped by a God o They were thrown in the river by the King, but saved o Romulus and Remus went to establish a new city upon determining the truth of their birth (royalty) o Romulus wants to establish it on the Palentine Hills o Remus wants to establish it on the Aventine Hills o They disagree – Remus dies – Romulus takes over.  The Aeneas Legend o Aeneas leads a group of noble Trojans across the world to found a new city - Rome o Romulus is a descendant of Aeneas  The Rape of the Sabine Women o Roman men kidnapped women from neighboring Sabine. o The men did not actually rape the women, but instead attempting courting them for marriage. o Reflects the struggle of order between the two populations occupying different hills  Tarpeia’s Betrayal o Tarpeia, a Roman maiden, betrayed the city of Rome to the Sabines in exchange for jewelry o Instead, they crushed her to death on Capitoline hill, which was then named the Tarpeian rock – a place of execution for Rome’s traitors o Represents societal hatred for women  The Death of Romulus o He was killed by the Patricians o He was raised up to heaven and made a God  The Rape of Lucretia o Raped by an Etruscan king and killed herself o Led to a revolution that overthrew the monarchy and established the Republic o Lucretia is seen as a problematic exemplum o Demonstrates the problems with Kingship  Familia  The family includes everyone subject to the power of the paterfamilias – father/male figure that
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