CLA233H1 Exam Review.docx

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Rob Mc Cutcheon

CLA233H1 Exam Review MAIN THEMES ExemplumMos Maiorum o Mos Maiorum refers to the custom of the ancestors and exemplum refers to their examples o Looked at the past as a model that they can build upon o Romans began to see that they have won all their wars imported vast wealth and eliminated all enemies o Practices of their ancestors should be prominent factors in political economic and social life o Politically based decisions on what was done in the past o Concept made the Romans a very political society o Essentially argued for the status quothe privileges of the oligarchyo The Senate was the very embodiment of mos maiorum o Collection of former magistrates who came from older aristocratic families o Wanted to preserve things the way they were by attempting to block the revolutionary moves from the tribune of the plebs o In the tablinium of a Roman home there would be death masksthis depicts the continuation of honoring the familys ancestors o In Seneca the Youngers Epistle 47 he mentions that the ancestors of Romans used to dine with their slaves o In the Roman family daughters were taught the roles of their mothers and sons of their fathersStruggle of the Orders o Patricians vs Plebeians o Patricians initially had sole access to high political and religious offices Latinpatres meaning fathers Powerful and wealthy nonroyal families that came to dominate Roman societyo Plebeians Composed of the rest of Roman society but excluded slaves Essentially held a labour strike by refusing to go to war if they could not pay off their debts to patricians Others became wealthier than some patricians o Struggle of the orders led to the establishment of the Tribune of the Plebs This new office could be seen as going against mos maiorumWhat it Meant to be Roman o Multiculturalism incorporating the ethnic groups from conquered cities into their own society o Warriorlike society violence against families women and constant warfare o Powerhungry always looking to expand their power and prestige o Their legacy the greatest thing was to be rememberedreason for triumphs death masks etc o Bound by certain ideologies emphasis on virtue such as honouring the familia o Women on the edges of political power POSSIBLE TERMSLatium The region of central western Italy in which Rome was founded This people of this region all spoke a form of Latin According to Livy the people of Latium formed the Latin League which protected the Latins from Etruscan expansion Carthage The Phoenician capital located in North Africa Was seen as Romes greatest enemy Conflict between Rome and Carthage resulted in three Punic Wars At the end of the third punic war Rome destroyed the city in 146 BCE With the loss of their greatest enemy the Romans began to lose their moralePatria Potestas The paterfamilias had complete control over the householdincluding their slaves Essentially they had the power of life and death over the dominion of the household Children were subject to patria potestas until their paterfamilias died or released them from his powerFamilia The Roman familia is different from the modern family as the familia included everyone in the householdincluding slaves This was the basic social and economic unitThe familia was subject to the power of the paterfamilias Within the familia daughters took on the roles of their mothers and sons took the roles of their fathers as they agedPaterfamilia The head of the household This was usually the eldest male figure within the family Had complete control over their familia Roman Marriages Marriages were both an economic and political decisionan essentially an alliance between two families Females would provide the male family with a dowry which was to be returned in the case of divorce There were two types of marriage manus in which a female would be passed entirely under her husbands control and without manus in which the female was still considered part of her fathers familyThe Peculium a Roman property law that allowed a master to hold their slaves as their own objectifies them Manumission the legal term for freeing a slave A slave could either pay the master for their freedom or a master could choose to free his slave himself Slaves could be freed after the death of their master if he allows it in his willSalutatio in the case of patronage this is a daily greeting that takes place within a patrons atrium The clients would ensure that they greeted their patron at his own home every morningPatronage a relationship between the patron someone of higher socioeconomic status and the client someone of a lower socioeconomic status This was a reciprocal relationship which involved the exchanges of services or money between both parties A patron could have several clients Likewise a patron could be a client himself to a more wealthy and influential patronAmicitia Literally meaning friendship however this could be seen as a cover for patronage Friendships were substitutes for party politics Friendships in the private sphere would often make their presence in the public sphere Some would vote based on their friendship with a senator rather than their platform Optimates Translates to the best men In Roman politics the optimates dominated the political sphere They were traditionalists and sought to limit the powers of the popular assemblies and the tribune of the plebs They favoured the nobles and discouraged new menPopulares Translates to favouring the people Populares relied on the popular assemblies and the Tribunes to acquire political power They addressed the problems of the urban plebs articularly subsidizing a grain dole and in general favored limiting slavery since slavery took jobs from poor free citizens They also garnered political support by attempts to expand citizenship to communities outside Rome and Italy Popularist politics reached a peak under the dictatorship of Julius Caesar Roman Forum Located between the Palentine and Capitoline Hills this was the centre for religious political and ceremonial life It was essentially the public sphere for Roman society This was also the site for elections speeches to the public and criminal trials The Roman Forum houses the Curia Senate the Regia house for priests and the Rostra the speakers platform Field of Mars Also known as the Campus Martius this was located in the north of Rome this was where most elections took place since soldiers were able to vote here
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