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Ben Akrigg

FINAL EXAM REVIEW FOR METHOD AND THEORY OF CLASSICS Greece Major Chronological Periods Bronze Age: c. 3000 c. 1200 B.C. Iron (or Dark) Age: c. 1200 c. 800 B.C. Archaic Period: c. 800 c. 480 B.C. Classical Period: c. 480 c. 323 B.C. Hellenistic Period: c. 323 onwards Minoans on Crete: c. 2000 B.C. Hellenistic Period begins with the death of Alexander the Great. Rome Major Chronological Periods Iron Age: c. 900 c. 750 B.C.E. Regnal Period: c. 750 c. 500 B.C.E. Roman Republic: c. 500 c. 31 B.C.E. The Principate: c. 31 B.C.E. late 3D c. C.E. Late Antiquity: roughly the 4TH 7TH c. C.E. Rome expulses their Kings and forms the Republic. Classical Archaeology 1 Classical archaeology definition more problematic (historical reasons) Sub-discipline of classics + archaeology (complicated relationship) Greek versus Roman Archaeology Both geographical (Greek- Aegean + East Mediterranean) (Rome- Italy + Western Europe) Both chronological (Greek about 100 BC, Roman 200 BC to 500 AD) Classical deals with material culture of civilizations that are familiar through elite literary culture Many cultures not literate, not produce texts that survive in great numbers (as in Mycenaeans) Other literate cultures are not well + known through literary output rather than prosaic documentary records (as in Medieval England) Literary Texts may be viewed as: Negative: finding suitable illustrations in text Positive: All types of material survives as a unique opportunity for studying use of material culture in early literate societies Doing Greek Archaeology Johann Joachim Winkelmann (1717-1768) Influential figure spreading interest in ancient Greece in mid 18 century Never did any fieldwork Appointed Papal Antiquary (1763) Access to virtually all sculpture excavated in Italy + exported from Greece Largely driven by reading ancient literary texts Visited excavation at Herculaneum (started in 1738) and Pompeii (1748) Highly critical of both sites Greek Independence Waning power of Ottoman empire makes Greece directly accessible Lord Elgins acquisition of sculpture from Parthenon (1801-1811) Greek War of Independence (1821-1830) New nation state Leaders (Bavarian Monarchy) parade monuments as symbols of their identity Archaeology in Greece Presence of foreign national school of archaeology founded in Greek Independence th Biggest + Most important were those founded in 19 century The French School (EfA) in 1846 The German School (DAI) in 1874 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA) in 1881 British School at Athens (BSA) in 1886 17 Foreign schools with official recognition Georgian School in 1997 + Canadian Institute in Greece (CIG/ICG) in 1976 Tight controls on archaeological fieldwork in Greece Foreign schools must apply to the Ministry of Culture for 3 permits for excavation/ survey projects yearly In addition, apply for 3 permits for collaborative projects with Greek Archaeological Service Fieldwork with sponsorship of foreign schools can be carried out by foreigners Majority of archaeological fieldwork is carried out by Greek Archaeological Service (branch of Ministry of Culture) Regional departments called Ephorates Specialized central departments called The Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities National Archaeological Museum 39 Ephorates of Prehistoric + Classical Antiquities 28 of Byzantine Antiquities Privately sponsored archaeology in Archaeological Society of Athens (1837) Long term research excavations (Athenian Agora- American School 1931) Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) Excavates at Troy (1870) + Shaft Graves at Mycenae + Bronze Age Citadel at Tiryns Enthusiastic + Wealthy amateur going against dominant scholarly views at the time His methods attracted a great deal of criticism Excavations were destructive Work carried out with a clear, problem oriented, research agenda Focused on stratigraphic sequence at Troy Brought Greek Bronze Age clearly to light Arthur Evans (1851-1941) Was a respectable academic and had less criticism Excavating in Crete (independent in 1898) 1900 Uncovering palace at Knossos revealed civilization that predated anything known from classical literary texts John Beazley (1885-1970) Working on Athenian painted pottery Production of catalogues of black and red figure painted ases Attributed them to specific artists + schools Arrangement of vases into a chronological framework Doing Roman Archaeology Interest in material remains hand in hand with increasing i
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