EAS241 Final Notes
first started by Huiwen, then later founded by Zhiyi
based on two Buddhist Scriptures: Lotus Sutra and Great Nirvana Sutra
Huiwen’s work: “Dasheng Zhiguan Famen”, Zhiyi’s work: “Maha Zhiguan”
philosophy: meditation + search for wisdom through concentration (or cessation) and
o “Zhi” (sámatha) – stop or bring mind to a rest and cessation of erroneous,
o “Guan” (vipaśianā) – have intuition/insight into the true Thusness of Buddhahood,
the Mind of Pure Self-Nature, to obtain wisdom
Zhiguan, practiced sitting, walking, or half sitting half walking:
2) breath following
3) calmness of mind
4) intuition of essence of objects in the world
5) return them to emptiness, into the One Pure Mind
Three Basic Doctrines:
1) perfect harmony of 3 levels of truth
truth of emptiness; truth of hypothesis; truth of middle path harmonized
by the Mind as the only true reality
2) true nature of all dharmas
all dharmas have no self-nature, depend on Pure Mind as their true reality,
but still have certain hypothetical existence ( empty & hypothetical)
3) 3000 worlds in an instant of thought
totality of all phenomenal world (which consists of 10 realms, each
involving the other, possessing ten characters, and consist of living beings,
of space, and aggregates) 3000 worlds
all come from one Universal Mind, one is in all, and all is in one
5 Moments of Buddha’s Teachings:
1) Huayan Moment EAS241 Final Notes
2) Deer Garden (Luyan) Moment
3) Vaipulya Moment
4) Prajna Moment
5) Fahua Moment and Nirvana Moment
healing illnesses by calming mind to stop on the right place of illness, or concentrate
mind on dantian long enough without digression, or stop the mind under the heel
names after founding scripture: the “Avatamsaka Sutra”, which had 3 version: 60 Chpts.,
80 Chpts., 40 Chpts.
Dushun the nominal founder, was Zhiyi’s teacher. But real builder is his disciple Fazang,
who made Huayan most prosperous under Empress Wu Zetian’s rule
5 Divisions of Buddha Teachings:
1) Teaching for Ordinary Disciples
2) Initial Doctrine of the Great Vehicle
3) Final Doctrine of the Great Vehicle
4) Great Doctrine of Sudden Enlightenment
5) The Rounded (Perfect) Doctrine of the One Vehicle
the official division of the Huayan, classified itself as the highest teaching
Universal Causation of Realms of Dharma:
1) Dependent Causation: all things arise from dependent causation; the Absolute
Mind, non-substantial and non-caused, is the Origin causing all things to arise
2) Realms of Dharma (Dharmadātu): whole universe has fourfold realms:
realm of events, realm of principle or reason, realm of events and
principles mutually penetrated, realm of all events mutually penetrated
Realms of Dharma: the differentiation and limitation in the case of events, and as “true
nature” in the case of principles
Each dharma possess 6 characters: universality and particularity; similarity and difference;
integration and disintegration EAS241 Final Notes
Each drama is at once one and all and the world is a perfect harmony. When one
dharma arises, all dharmas arise in the meanwhile and vice versa.
Chenguan includes Tiantai and Chan into his Huayan system: Fazang’s li xin and
ppl’s ordinary heart have Buddha’s Mind/Heart so can achieve Buddha’s wisdom
by basing on their wisdom
when not true origin is realized, spiritual enlightenment arises, and when compare
hear to Buddha, will see heart and Buddha forms an identity
traditionally said to start with Bodhidarma’s teaching in China, later became more
influential in coop with Huayan Buddhism under Empress Wu’s reign
Chan Meditation: meditation in every moment of daily life
After Hongren, school was divided into Shenxiu’s northern school of gradual
enlightenment and Huineng’s southern school of sudden enlightenment
o The body is the tree of perfect wisdom
o The mind is like the stand of bright mirror
o At all times diligently wipe it
o Do not allow it to become dusty
o Originally perfect wisdom is no tree.
o Nor is the bright mirror of any stand.
o Buddha nature is forever clear and pure.
o Where is there any dust?
o The body is the tree of perfect wisdom.
o The mind is the stand of bright mirror.
o The bright mirror is originally clear and pure.
o Where has it been defiled by any dust?
(first refutation of Shenxiu’s verse and second posits Huineng’s own view) EAS241 Final Notes
o Huineng’s view: Heart is the clear and pure Buddha nature, by which all sentient
beings are already Buddha, therefore able to achieve sudden enlightenment when
return to their own Heart
o Shenxiu’s view: enlightenment through dhyana or concentration is a gradual process
Sudden vs. Gradual Enlightenment:
o Gradual: cut off or leave all erroneous thought from human desires by the gradual
effort of cultivation so as to attain one’s pure heart and abide there in purity
o Sudden: go to one’s original heart w/o looking at any distinction between good/evil,
righteous/erroneous, truth/illusion, so as to “empty all thoughts” and to “abide
Understanding w/o going through gradual steps b/c understanding is natural.
Wisdom – the enlightenment of one’s own Heart in the details of everyday life. In
things big or small there was the Dao of enlightenment. Prajna is in one’s Heart.
o Just to listen, to say and to cultivate one’s self by seeking in one’s Heart, the Western
paradise appears at the present moment.
Chan Buddhism: dhyana and prajna (calmness and wisdom), are one substance not two.
Calmness is the substance of wisdom and wisdom is the function of calmness.
Dealing with desire: when desire emerges, better do some good deeds to others before
sitting and meditating with whatever method.
Situational teaching to help penetrate into own Buddha nature by beating and shouting,
and other forms of body language w/o verbal language, scriptures and texts
3 schools of Neo-Confucianism: Realists, Idealists, Naturalists
started with Zhou Dunyi
Diagram of the Greater Ultimate:
o GU, through mov’t generates yang. When its activity reaches it limits, becomes
tranquil. Through tranquility, the GU generates yin. When the tranquility reaches
its limit, activity begins again. So mov’t and tranquility alternate and become the
root of each other, giving rise to the distinction of yin and yang, and the two
modes are thus established. EAS241 Final Notes
o Five Agents arise from the transformation of yang and its union with yin:
Water, Fire, Wood, Metal, Earth. When these five vital forces are
distributed in harmonious order, the four seasons run their course.
All Five Agents unified by yin and yang, and yin yang unified by the GU.
Zhang Zai marked most important change in Confucian cosmology by interpreting the
GU as the Vital Force. All cosmic opposites are two opp. side of the same reality in
dialectical interaction, leading finally to a comprehensive harmony
Cosmic ren: concept of ren is extended to the universe, from morality to serving
Two Chen Brothers: Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi
o Cheng Yi’s two philosophical ideas: “principle is one, yet manifestations are
many” and “investigation of things”, much influenced Zhu Xi
Zhu Xi is the greatest synthesize and system builder among all Neo-Confucians, studied
phenomena of solar eclipse and lunar eclipse
his philosophy: “investigation of things to extend knowledge”; li could be found in
everything, to be revealed by investigation
o important concepts: li and qi
o li is seen as the Ultimate Reality: on physical level, each and every thing has its
own particular li; on human and ethical level, li becomes human nature and when
expressed becomes good feelings. The GU is li, therefore li is also the Ultimate
Reality, and all other lis are diff manifestations of the same Ultimate Reality.
“The Principle is one, whereas the manifestations are many”
o li is a metaphysical reality whereas qi is physical. Li could exist w/o qi. And li
cannot be separate from qi; they constitute all things in their concrete existence.
Attainment of knowledge includes both knowledge of self and knowledge of things
Human nature is li embodied in human Mind. Since li is the original goodness of all
things, human’s original nature must be good. Human evil explained by human nature of
physical disposition. EAS241 Final Notes
o Mind is both static and dynamic. The original human nature is good, whereas
emotions are good when following the original nature, evil when tied with selfish
Human beings must preserve Heavenly principle and repress human desire. “Dwelling in
respect” is the most important method self-cultivation, concerns both the quiet substance
of human mind and its active functions.
“Thorough investigation of principles”, “extension of knowledge”, “investigation of