EAS241 Final Review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
East Asian Studies
Vincent Shen

EAS241 Final Notes Tiantai School  first started by Huiwen, then later founded by Zhiyi  based on two Buddhist Scriptures: Lotus Sutra and Great Nirvana Sutra  Huiwen’s work: “Dasheng Zhiguan Famen”, Zhiyi’s work: “Maha Zhiguan”  philosophy: meditation + search for wisdom through concentration (or cessation) and intuition o “Zhi” (sámatha) – stop or bring mind to a rest and cessation of erroneous, rambling thoughts o “Guan” (vipaśianā) – have intuition/insight into the true Thusness of Buddhahood, the Mind of Pure Self-Nature, to obtain wisdom  Zhiguan, practiced sitting, walking, or half sitting half walking: 1) breath-counting 2) breath following 3) calmness of mind 4) intuition of essence of objects in the world 5) return them to emptiness, into the One Pure Mind  Three Basic Doctrines: 1) perfect harmony of 3 levels of truth  truth of emptiness; truth of hypothesis; truth of middle path  harmonized by the Mind as the only true reality 2) true nature of all dharmas  all dharmas have no self-nature, depend on Pure Mind as their true reality, but still have certain hypothetical existence ( empty & hypothetical) 3) 3000 worlds in an instant of thought  totality of all phenomenal world (which consists of 10 realms, each involving the other, possessing ten characters, and consist of living beings, of space, and aggregates)  3000 worlds  all come from one Universal Mind, one is in all, and all is in one  5 Moments of Buddha’s Teachings: 1) Huayan Moment EAS241 Final Notes 2) Deer Garden (Luyan) Moment 3) Vaipulya Moment 4) Prajna Moment 5) Fahua Moment and Nirvana Moment  healing illnesses by calming mind to stop on the right place of illness, or concentrate mind on dantian long enough without digression, or stop the mind under the heel Huayan School  names after founding scripture: the “Avatamsaka Sutra”, which had 3 version: 60 Chpts., 80 Chpts., 40 Chpts.  Dushun the nominal founder, was Zhiyi’s teacher. But real builder is his disciple Fazang, who made Huayan most prosperous under Empress Wu Zetian’s rule  5 Divisions of Buddha Teachings: 1) Teaching for Ordinary Disciples 2) Initial Doctrine of the Great Vehicle 3) Final Doctrine of the Great Vehicle 4) Great Doctrine of Sudden Enlightenment 5) The Rounded (Perfect) Doctrine of the One Vehicle  the official division of the Huayan, classified itself as the highest teaching of Buddha  Universal Causation of Realms of Dharma: 1) Dependent Causation: all things arise from dependent causation; the Absolute Mind, non-substantial and non-caused, is the Origin causing all things to arise 2) Realms of Dharma (Dharmadātu): whole universe has fourfold realms:  realm of events, realm of principle or reason, realm of events and principles mutually penetrated, realm of all events mutually penetrated  Realms of Dharma: the differentiation and limitation in the case of events, and as “true nature” in the case of principles  Each dharma possess 6 characters: universality and particularity; similarity and difference; integration and disintegration EAS241 Final Notes  Each drama is at once one and all and the world is a perfect harmony. When one dharma arises, all dharmas arise in the meanwhile and vice versa.  Chenguan includes Tiantai and Chan into his Huayan system: Fazang’s li  xin and lixing  xinxing.  ppl’s ordinary heart have Buddha’s Mind/Heart so can achieve Buddha’s wisdom by basing on their wisdom  when not true origin is realized, spiritual enlightenment arises, and when compare hear to Buddha, will see heart and Buddha forms an identity Chan Buddhism  traditionally said to start with Bodhidarma’s teaching in China, later became more influential in coop with Huayan Buddhism under Empress Wu’s reign  Chan Meditation: meditation in every moment of daily life  After Hongren, school was divided into Shenxiu’s northern school of gradual enlightenment and Huineng’s southern school of sudden enlightenment  Shenxiu’s verse: o The body is the tree of perfect wisdom o The mind is like the stand of bright mirror o At all times diligently wipe it o Do not allow it to become dusty  Huineng’s verse: o Originally perfect wisdom is no tree. o Nor is the bright mirror of any stand. o Buddha nature is forever clear and pure. o Where is there any dust? o The body is the tree of perfect wisdom. o The mind is the stand of bright mirror. o The bright mirror is originally clear and pure. o Where has it been defiled by any dust? (first refutation of Shenxiu’s verse and second posits Huineng’s own view) EAS241 Final Notes o Huineng’s view: Heart is the clear and pure Buddha nature, by which all sentient beings are already Buddha, therefore able to achieve sudden enlightenment when return to their own Heart o Shenxiu’s view: enlightenment through dhyana or concentration is a gradual process  Sudden vs. Gradual Enlightenment: o Gradual: cut off or leave all erroneous thought from human desires by the gradual effort of cultivation so as to attain one’s pure heart and abide there in purity o Sudden: go to one’s original heart w/o looking at any distinction between good/evil, righteous/erroneous, truth/illusion, so as to “empty all thoughts” and to “abide nowhere”.  Understanding w/o going through gradual steps b/c understanding is natural.  Wisdom – the enlightenment of one’s own Heart in the details of everyday life. In things big or small there was the Dao of enlightenment. Prajna is in one’s Heart. o Just to listen, to say and to cultivate one’s self by seeking in one’s Heart, the Western paradise appears at the present moment.  Chan Buddhism: dhyana and prajna (calmness and wisdom), are one substance not two. Calmness is the substance of wisdom and wisdom is the function of calmness.  Dealing with desire: when desire emerges, better do some good deeds to others before sitting and meditating with whatever method.  Situational teaching to help penetrate into own Buddha nature by beating and shouting, and other forms of body language w/o verbal language, scriptures and texts Early Neo-Confucians  3 schools of Neo-Confucianism: Realists, Idealists, Naturalists  started with Zhou Dunyi  Diagram of the Greater Ultimate: o GU, through mov’t generates yang. When its activity reaches it limits, becomes tranquil. Through tranquility, the GU generates yin. When the tranquility reaches its limit, activity begins again. So mov’t and tranquility alternate and become the root of each other, giving rise to the distinction of yin and yang, and the two modes are thus established. EAS241 Final Notes o Five Agents arise from the transformation of yang and its union with yin:  Water, Fire, Wood, Metal, Earth. When these five vital forces are distributed in harmonious order, the four seasons run their course.  All Five Agents unified by yin and yang, and yin yang unified by the GU.  Zhang Zai marked most important change in Confucian cosmology by interpreting the GU as the Vital Force. All cosmic opposites are two opp. side of the same reality in dialectical interaction, leading finally to a comprehensive harmony  Cosmic ren: concept of ren is extended to the universe, from morality to serving heaven/earth  Two Chen Brothers: Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi o Cheng Yi’s two philosophical ideas: “principle is one, yet manifestations are many” and “investigation of things”, much influenced Zhu Xi Realist Neo-Confucians  Zhu Xi is the greatest synthesize and system builder among all Neo-Confucians, studied phenomena of solar eclipse and lunar eclipse  his philosophy: “investigation of things to extend knowledge”; li could be found in everything, to be revealed by investigation o important concepts: li and qi o li is seen as the Ultimate Reality: on physical level, each and every thing has its own particular li; on human and ethical level, li becomes human nature and when expressed becomes good feelings. The GU is li, therefore li is also the Ultimate Reality, and all other lis are diff manifestations of the same Ultimate Reality. “The Principle is one, whereas the manifestations are many” o li is a metaphysical reality whereas qi is physical. Li could exist w/o qi. And li cannot be separate from qi; they constitute all things in their concrete existence.  Attainment of knowledge includes both knowledge of self and knowledge of things  Human nature is li embodied in human Mind. Since li is the original goodness of all things, human’s original nature must be good. Human evil explained by human nature of physical disposition. EAS241 Final Notes o Mind is both static and dynamic. The original human nature is good, whereas emotions are good when following the original nature, evil when tied with selfish lustful desires.  Human beings must preserve Heavenly principle and repress human desire. “Dwelling in respect” is the most important method self-cultivation, concerns both the quiet substance of human mind and its active functions.  “Thorough investigation of principles”, “extension of knowledge”, “investigation of things”
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