Notes for Final Exam

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East Asian Studies
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Graham Sanders

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Empress Wu 625705TangZhou was the first woman to achieve a position of great political power and ruled in the Tang Dynasty She got promoted by Emperor Gaozong when she put the blame of her childs death on her predecessor Gaozong later had a stroke and Empress Wu started making decisions for him Many suspected that she poisoned her son when he started opposing her ideas She constantly brought in new officials through examinations She ruled behind a screen not letting councilors see her during talks until she was near sixty At sixtyfive she became emperor of a new dynasty the Zhou Dynasty and the first and only female emperor of China She was a big fan of depositionHan Yu 768824Tang was an important politically engaged writer and thinker He wrote a memorial On the Buddha Bone which implied that the emperor was risking his life by bringing a dead persons bone into his palace His writing style was labeled ancient style a plainer prose style He claimed that it best conveyed the truths of Confucian tradition In an essay he explained that the passing down of Confucian traditions had been disrupted at some point and that scholars had to return to the Analects and MenciusQueen Sndk of Silla 632647 was the daughter of King Chunpyng who had no sons to take over the throne She and her cousin Queen Chindk were the last rulers of Sillas highest social status the Holy Bone lineage When Sndk was in power the foundation of the unification of the Korean Peninsula was created She supposedly possessed spiritual powers that made her able to perceive omens and predict the future Amaterasu is the Japanese Sun Goddess and was a famous deity of Shinto religion She was one of many offspring of Izanagi and Izanami When she was born they realized her luster and power and almost immediately sent her to Heaven Historians claimed that Japan had only one ruling family all descendants of Amaterasu who ordered her descendant Jimmu to be the ruler of the land Prince Shotoku 573621 was Empress Suikos nephew The Yamato court attempted to ameliorate their power by adopting features of Chinese civilization and most importantly their political institutions Prince Shotoku was the chief architect He was Buddhist and had a strong interest in religion and was also well read in Confucian literature He realized his country had a lot to learn from China and wanted to create a better relationship with them Liao Dynasty was a dynasty present during the Chinese Song dynasty ruled by the Khitan people and was situated north of Song It also occupied some of Mongolia and China It was one of the Song Dynastys main rivals Emperor Taizong of Song asked Koryo to join in an attack against Liao but Liao interfered and later invaded Koryo Instead of attempting to take over Koryo Liao proposed peace and forced them to adopt the Liao calendar and end their relationship with Song Zhu Xi 11301200 was a Southern Song Confucian master He believed in human perfectibility through the investigation of things such as the study of principles and selfcultivation as taught in the Great Learning He passed the jinshi examination at eighteen but later spent only little time working for the government He helped to establish private academies in order to teach groups of disciples about NeoConfucianism Fujiwara 9001050 was an era in Japan named after the Fujiwara lineage Despite slow population and economic growth a small group of aristocratic men and women put together texts which are universally considered literary classics Great female literary triumphs took place during this time Also during this era a ninerank system consisting of three groups was created and within that ranking patronclient relationships were very strong It was important for people from the Fujiwara lineage to marry within the family so Fujiwara men married aunts nieces and cousins Amida became a popular Buddha in the Fujiwara Kory 9351392 a Korean Dynasty founded by Wang Kn King Taejo lasted four and a half centuries During this period Korea had to cope with Khitans Jurchens and Mongols as opposed to China While Buddhism was still strong Confucianism became more popular especially with the yangban an aristocracy formed in the Kory made up of people qualified to participate in audiences with the King With the rise in popularity of printing came more books primarily about the history of early Korea In 1170 King Uljong was overthrown by a group of military officers who were unhappy with his ruling habits He was replaced by his brother who later called Uljongs assassin Yi Uimin to run the government Then a commander named Choe Chunghon killed Yi and took over the government Changan was the capital of the Tang Dynasty built by the Sui Dynasty and was the largest capital at the time It was a planned city built on a gridlike system composed of rectangular walled wards Foreign cultures were introduced to the city through envoys merchants and pilgrims from neighbouring areas such as Japan and Korea Dunhuang Silla was one of Koreas Three Kingdoms that started out weakest but had the most power in the end It began as a confederation of six tribes controlled by a group of tribal leaders Sillas kings wanted to institutionalize their governments The kings set up a ministry of war issued a Chinesestyle law code made Buddhism a statesponsored religion and collected taxes on agriculture By 668 Silla had conquered both Paekche and Koguryo and was called Unified SillaBone Rank was an aristocratic ranking system applied by Silla to its entire society where the highest rank was reserved for Sillas own nobility In this system the descendants of the three royal clans were referred to as the True Bone families who lived in Kyongju Members of the True Bones could not drop to commoner status unless it was for punishment for crimes Young men of these families took part in age groups called flower youth groups where they practiced military skills and engaged in cultural activities Nara 710794 was the era in Japan where Nara a Korean word for country was its capital Similar to Changan Nara was built on a grid with the palace was located at the north facing south During this period and under the reign of Jito officials began putting together official histories and creating a set of written administrative
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