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Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
David Zamparo

GENERAL TERMS Symbiosis/ symbiotic relationship is close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species Mutualism any relationship between individuals of different species where both individuals benefit Commensalism a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped Parasitism one member of the association benefits while the other is harmed Alternation of Generations Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization. Offspring does not resemble parent. happens to cnidarians Complex Life Cycle Parasites that must infect more than one host species to complete their life cycles Aesexual Reproduction mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it is reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. The offspring will be exact genetic copies of the parent. Sexual Reproduction process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms Parthenogenesis form of asexual reproduction where growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization Hypodermic insemination in which the male pierces the female's abdomen with his penis and injects his sperm through the wound into her abdominal cavity (hemocoel) Sexual Dimorphism a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species Gonochoristic state of strobilar development characterized by the possession of gonads of only one sex (male or female) Hermaphroditic characterized by the presence of both male and female reproductive organs in the same organism (not necessarily at the same time) Dioecious characterised by a species having distinct male and female organisms Monoecious have separate male and female flowers on the same organism Oviparous animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother Viviparous mode of embryonic development, in which the embryo, without any protective envelope, develops in utero within the parental organism Phagocytosis cellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane Exocytosis cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane and into the extracellular space Suspension/Filter Feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure. Predation predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked) Grazing feeding on autotrophs Radial Symmetry (pie) An organism with radial symmetry exhibits no left or right sides. They have a top and a bottom (dorsal and ventral surface) only. Biradial Symmetry - Ctenophora body components of an animal are arranged such that similar parts are located to either side of a central axis and each of the four sides of the body is identical to the opposite side but different from the adjacent side Bilateral Symmetry only one plane, called the sagittal plane, will divide an organism into roughly mirror image halves Syncytium is a multinucleate cell which can result from multiple cell fusions of uninuclear cells Hydrostatic Skeleton pressure of the fluid and action of the surrounding circular and longitudinal muscles are used to change an organism's shape and produce movement, such as burrowing or swimming Coelom is a fluid-filled cavity formed within the mesoderm of some animals Meiofauna Meiofauna are small benthic invertebrates that live in both marine and freshwater environments Interstitial creatures can live in an empty space or gap between spaces full of structure or matter.
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