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Evolution - Class Notes.docx

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Summary of Natural SelectionoDifferential success in reproduction and the ability of an organism to survive leads to the adaptation of apopulation to its environment and the increasing frequency of favored traits in a populationNOTE Individuals do not evolve Populations of species evolveEvolution the process of cumulative change in heritable characteristics of a population1PreDarwinian ViewaCuvier 17691832catastrophismoCatastrophes happened to wipe out species and new ones immigrated in to take their placeaHutton 17261797gradualismoProfound change in landforms is cumulative product of slow continuous processaLyell 17971875uniformitarianismoGeological processes have not changed over timeoConditions of the earth are constantly gradually changing aLamarck 17441829oUse and Disuse theory to explain how adaptations evolvethe more a structure is used the larger andstronger it becomesoinheritance of acquire characteristicsoffspring are born with characteristics that their parents haveacquired in their lifetime aMalthus 17661834oCompetition for food occurs when population of species increases aArtificial Selection Breeding was commonly used at this time 1Charles Darwinfather of evolutionTheory of natural selection most accepted explanation for the cause of evolutiondescent with modificationsall organisms are related through descent of common ancestor with accumulated modificationsadaptations over time Used knowledge of artificial selection selective breedingTravelled around the world on the HMS beagleBook On the origin of species by means of natural selection 1858Galapagos island finchesAt the same time Alfred Russell Wallace was coming up with same theoryCharles Darwin 1859Studied to be a priest creationist at first5 year voyage around the worldoTo explore the southern America because they didnt rly know what was thereEndemic SpeciesSpecies that is only found in one place in the worldspecies are isolated on islands Cant travel to new land1Collected 1000s of fossilsaGiant fossils that are similar to modern armadillos and slothsiConclusion organisms share common ancestry and change over time1Evidence of major geological change both past and presentaMassive earthquake when he arrived in S AmericabFossils of crustaceans at top of Andes mountainsConclusion Earth is very old and does change
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