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GGR100H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Doreen Massey (Geographer), Biomedical Model, Health Geography

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Definitions of Health
o Absence of disease
o All about treatment not prevention
o Measured by its absence
Holistic Model
o Takes person as a whole
o Health is a state of complete mental and social well being
o The person as a whole
Wellness Model
o Health is a resources for everyday life
o Emphasizes social/personal resources and physical capabilities
o Health is a resource you draw on to get through things (like a tool kid)
Social Determinants of Health
o Social factors that help you in health
o Always changing, each society different s.d.o.h
Illness: subjective experience of person how someone feels
o Holistic model
Disease: diagnosis of recognized symptoms
o Bio-medical model
Measuring Health
Morbidity: sickness/illness
o I: # of new cases w/in given time interval (what we will have)
o P: # of people with the disease at one point in time (what we have right now)
Chronic: long-lasting, life long
Acute: starts suddenly, last only a few days
Infectious: cause by organisms that can move between people
o I: having a defective or missing body part
o D: socially or culturally constructed of exclusion
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Qual : explaining or seeking experiences
Quant: take/make findings and apply it to population
Geographical Concepts
Location: fixed point/geographic area, no meaning
Space: absolute space, independent of whatever occupies it
Place: a location w/a specific identity/meaning
Distance: relates one place to another
o Distance decay: the further away you are from one place the less likely you are to use it
Scale: micro to the macro different levels impact our health
Geographic Approaches
o Quantitative and objective
o Requires objectivity and truth
o Studies adopts a Biomedical perspective: type of questions you’re asking are in the understanding of
health in the absence of disease
Humanist/Social Internationalist
o Emerged as a challenge of positivism

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o Emphasize humans as decision makers: they way they perceive their world, land, landscapes and
o Studies adopt holistic approach: looking at the persons feelings along with the conditions they have
o Qualitative
o Emphasis on macro political and economic system
o Social context matter- not individual level
o Agency of individual is lacking
Post-Structuralist/Post Modern
o Power relations: who has it and who doesn’t
o Difference or “otherness”: what does it mean to be a woman
o The body: how its understood socially- how can you manipulate your body to pull into different power
Move form medical geography to health geography
Advocated medical geography to engage with new social theory
Began debate within the field
o Where theory comes into place
o Health geography you see a variety of approaches

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Geographical Imaginations
Derek Gregor
Spatialized, cultural and historical knowledge that characterize social groups
o In an area (space), the things you know in culture like how to use a knife and spoon (type of knowledge),
and how that characterizes social groups (how we define that group by cultural or historical
knowledge/how its related to people)
Doreen Massey
The way we understand a space may not be the same as another person does (map of Toronto)
Said’s Orientalism
Argues that there is a group of assumptions that western thinkers had of the east and these stereotypes brought
o West = masculine/rational and it was seen as a duty to help the east
o East = feminine/irrational and exotic usually used to represent them
Geographical imaginations can alter our actions and effects of our actions
Blaming cultural theory we have to look at other factors
Aids was being framed in academic conferences
People assumed all of Africa was the same and were ignoring the differences/impacts
Argued too much focus on culture as defining reason for Aids affecting Africa
Africans were seen as victims + many stereotypes
African gov’t wasn’t doing much
As a result of stereotypes we only looked at research in one way
Quantitative methods a lot of early work was number based (skewed pictures)
Teleology: grand narratives: how we understand a place
Farmer’s Geographies of Blame
U.S believed Aids came from Haiti to the U.s
3 main stereotypes
o Haitian immigrants were seen as dirty, uneducated, living in high poverty areas
o Practices voodoo: blood rituals
o Descendants of African slaves
Haiti is not in Africa
Farmer argues Aids did not come from Haiti
1. American phase: sex tourism (tourist from outside came inside and had gay relationships in the cities)
2. Feminization of the urban: women came to urban cities to work and many were infected
3. Ruralisation: movement from the city to rural areas
People in city who came to look for work went back
Through mobile/truck drivers/ soldiers
Asian women and their sexual health in New Zealand
o Younger Asian women were having higher abortion rates
Abortions more widely accepted in Asian cultures
Asian women were culturally passive and adhered to cultural understandings
Argument: women went to school/work had relationships w/NZ men b/c they weren’t educated in their culture
Thought as promiscuous
Clash of cultures
o Non-critical understanding of worships in NX media
o Public discourse affects policy
Conclude: young A women not having more abortions geographic imaginations are around Asian cultures
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