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GGR100 EXAM REVIEW.doc

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR100H1
Professor
C
Semester
Summer

Description
GGR100 Exam Review Equations Radiation= Stefan-Boltzmann Law: Q proportionate to T^(4) (t=temperature, Q=radiation) Radiation Balance: Albedo (a) K*=K(down) x (1-a) a= outgoing radiation/incoming radiation Unit: Watts/m^2 Net Radiation= (SWdown-SWup) + (LWdown -LWup) Water Balance: Change in Storage= P-E-R P= Q + E + change in S (Q=runoff, P=precipitation, E=evapotranspiration, S=storage) RH=Actual water vapour in the air/ Maximum water vapor possible x100 Soil Water Balance= evapotranspiration + surplus+ change in soil-moisture storage evapotranspiration=transpiration+evaporation Interception loss= litter + canopy interception loss Net rainfall= total rainfall- total interception loss Lecture 1 Positive Feedback: increases response in the system Lecture 2 Radiation= the radiation intensity emitted depends on temperature of the object Earth’s layers thermopause: outer boundary of earth’s energy system top of atmosphere Sun radiates SW radiation (infrared radiation) Earth emits LW radiation (thermal infrared-heat) Solar Radiation Insolation= solar radiation that hits Earth Solar Constant=1372 Wm^2 = incoming SW radiation at top of atmosphere Global Net Radiation= higher latitudes, net radiation is negative which means we are losing more energy to space than we gain from the sun Uneven receipt of solar insolation at Earth’s surface (2.5x more concentrated at equator than poles) Insolation= solar radiation that hits Earth -insolation is latitude dependent, due to curve of Earth -further diffused at higher latitudes because the path through the atmostphere is longer-more scattering, absorption, and reflection If only 31% of insolation is reflected to space, why doesn’t the earth get hotter? LW energy is eventually radiated back to space, keeping equillibrium Reasons for Seasonality: driven by uneven receipt of insolation on surface 1. Sphericity-uneven receipt of insolation on surface 2. Revolution- 3. Rotation-turning on axis 4. Tilt- permanetly tilted 5. Axial Parallelism-tilt unchanged on revolution 1. Sphericity--insolation is latitude dependent, due to curve of Earth -further diffused at higher latitudes because the path through the atmostphere is longer-more scattering, absorption, and reflection 2. Revolution: Aphelion- Earth furthest from sun, Perihelion- Earth closest to sun 3. Rotation- axis is angled 23.5 from the plane of the ecliptic 4. Tilt- subsolar point- suns energy directly hits earth(receives sun
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