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Exam Review Lecture 2.pdf

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Charles Z Levkoe

Exam Review Lecture 2 Part 1: Critical thinking ! How can we know? • Through values and ethics • Theoretical Development • Ontology/Epistemology • Observation and testing ! What is there? • Ontology (the metaphysical study of nature of being and existence ) • Ex. Realism vs. Idealism • Realism: the truth about the external world • Idealism: different ideas in our minds ! How do we know? • Epistemology (theory of knowledge and knowing) • Ex. Positivism vs. social constructionism • Positivism: scientific method is the best way to determine an answer • Social constructionism: we construct our knowledge all the time ! How do we explain what we find • Theory (organized system of excepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances) • Ex. Gravity, evolution, racism • Highly debated issues ! What should do? • Ethics: morality, values: outcomes of actions and beliefs: psychological state what do we believe ! Values using a political compass • Traditional right/left wing • Now it can be divided into 4 different spaces • An economic perspective • A political perspective ! Critical Thinking • Examining the assumptions of underlying issues ! Critical thinking is NOT… • Making everyone think the same about issues • Looking a both sides and splitting the difference • Not negatively looking for flaws • Not a retreat for subjectivity ! Thinking critically… 1. Having an open attitude o Open o Humble o Free 2. Examining the pitfalls o Limits o Language o Faulty logic 3. Identify argument o Look for indicators o Deductive vs. Inducti
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