Exam essay answers - Peace of Westphalia + Appeasement

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The peace of westphalia was made up of a collection of treaties that put an end to the thirty years. The agreement was among the states, including spain and the dutch. It recognized the sovereignty of netherlands, and german states. This meant europe would not unite under one emperor. This essentially meant a decline for the habsburg monarchy. The peace of westphalia resulted from the first modern diplomatic congress and initiated a new order in central europe based on the concept of state sovereignty. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on two principles: Territoriality and the exclusion of external actors from domestic authority structures. First was the king is sovereign and is not subject to the political will of anyone else. The absolute power of rulers was linked to their own specific territory. The second was that of the king being able to determine the religion practiced in his realm.

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