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Europe 1815.docx

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Europe 1815-1876
Congress of Vienna (1815)
- Most controversial subject was polish-saxon
- During the Congress of Vienna, Russia and
Prussia made a deal.
- Prussia would support Russia's bid for Poland if
Russia would support Prussia's bid for Saxony.
- Metternich (Austria) and Castlereagh (Britain)
feared Russia would become too powerful and
ruin the balance of power in Europe
Holy Alliance ( Grand Alliance)
- WHO ? Russia, Austria, Prussia at the Congress
of Vienna
- Purpose ? Instilling Christian values of charity
and peace in Euro pol life. Bu in practise
Metternich used it as a cover to prevent
revolutionary influence esp from the French
from entering these nations.
- Against democracy, revolution and secularism.
The Eastern Question
- Problem of Euro territory controlled by
decaying Otto Empire.
- Everyone hoped to profit from the
disintegration of Ottoman Empire because of
their rival imperialistic interests.
- The straits were a major geographic advantage
to whom ever had access to it. A major military
and diplomatic focal point of the E.Q.
Greek War of Independence (1822)
Proclaim a republic and independence
from Otto. Turks invade Greece, Russia
declares war on Turkey (1823). Greece
is also aided by France and Britain who
were afraid of the Russian expansion in
the Balkans so decided to join in to stop
it. Anglo-French-Russian navy smashed
Turkish fleet. War ends and Turks finally
recognize Greek Independence (1829).
RUSSIA WAS granted commercial rights
in OTTO empire.
- Crisis when muhammet Ali tried to invade Syria
- Russia signed a mutual pact that Russia would
defend Ottoman Empire if Egyptians claimed
- The British started to fear Russia
- They had a huge army : people thought they
were stronger than they actually were
- Thought it was Russia’s attempt to control the
Ottoman Empire
- A lot of anti-russian press: portrayed Russians as
non-european, and barbaric.
- King Louis XVIII was replaced by Charles X
- Charles X was disliked greatly by the public
- His policies antagonized the nation ( he made
reactionary policies but the public was used to
liberal and republican reforms )
July Ordinance
- 1 Dissolved Chamber of Deputies
- 2 Censored the press
- 3 Took voting rights away from bourgeoisie
- 4 Called for new election excluding bourgeoisie
- Led to a revolution in France
- Charles X was disposed, new King installed
- Revolution didn’t do much, just prevented
rights of bourgeoisie from being trampled
Revolutions of 1830
- Protests against particular aspects of the peace
settlement of 1814-1815
- Was an old order, incapable of satisfying
aspirations of people of Europe
- Vienna Agreement was made under the
assumption that states existed on the basis of
dynastic rights and binding treaties
- However, nationalists and liberalists believed
states owed their existence to the will for the
Significance of the July Revolution
- Change in political climate : resulted in
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- Set the revolutionary motion, rippled through
Europe : Belgium and Poland.
- Polish rebellion was quickly cushed by Czar
Nicholas of Russia
- Belgium (1839) : independent state, important
strategic location: held France back
- Britain said if anyone invades, the would
intervene (WWI)
The Revolutions of 1848
- outbreak of mobs, unruly Paris mob frightened
Louis Phillippe into abdicating
- socialist programs were passed
- New constitution.
- Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s
nephew was elected, said his uncle was a liberal
and he is also a liberal. Was elected because of
his name.
- Interested in establishing order, and once
elected, got rid of the socialists and encouraged
religious influence. Declared himself Emperor.
- Hidden agenda : wanted France to regain the
territories and power it had lost to the other
Great Powers
The Austrian Empire
- Various ethnic groups had become increasingly
nationalist, was on the verge of collapse
because of so many revolutions, the only one
they could easily supress was the one in Italy.
Revolt in Hungary as well
- Was on the verge of collapse and rejected
Prussian offer of help, Metternich fled and
- Ferdinand promised Hungary a constitution, a
parliament etc.
- Russians came to their aid because of concern
of balance of power and also didn’t want the
Polish to revolt once again
- Agreed to support Austria without a price.
- Hungary was taken back by Austria under
Russian Tsar Nicholas and the Austrian
government was restored to its original
- The Middle class intelligentsia had become
more ‘conscience’ and ‘ self – aware’ of their
role in society and therefore wanted
representation from the autocratic princes
- Demonstrators and the army clashed. Streets
were barricaded, until Frederick Wilhelm VI
removed troops and appointed liberal ministers
(who were powerless.) The ‘mob’ though, which
was mainly made up of dissatisfied peasants
and working class, quickly left the revolution to
the political thinking middle classes
- Although the Parliament ‘Germany’ was given in
1849 did not last long, it gave the liberal
thinkers among the revolutionaries the
incentive to look for more Power , a German
Culture and Identity
- Long term consequence was that there was a
drive to look for NATIONHOOD. Whether that
be a Klein Deutschland (led by Prussia, the pre
WW1 Germany) or the Gross Deutschland (Big
Germany including Austria.)
Crimean War Background
Straits Convention 1841
- Purpose is to prop up the sick man of Europe
(Otto Empire)
- Between Britain, France, Prussia, Austria, Russia
and Turkey
- No nation’s warships will pass through the
straits in times of peace
- No nation will seek to have exclusive influence
within the Ottoman empire ( however this will
lead to future conflict because Russia considers
itself the protector of Holy sites and of
Orthodox within the Ottomon Empire. The
custody of these churches due to pressure from
Russia lies with Orthodox priests, excluding
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