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Midterm

HIS241H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Napoleonic Code, Continental System, Scorched Earth

by

Department
History
Course Code
HIS241H1
Professor
Anthony Cantor
Study Guide
Midterm

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History Exam Revision Notes:
Examined epoch: 1800-1850.
The year 1799 set the tone in Europe, as the French revolution
continued to burgeon.
To preclude roaming royalists from claiming control over the directory.
The elite, commonly referred to as the bourgeois, asked for Napoleon
to band his army, and commenced the action to defend the directory,
simultaneously annulling the elections.
Napoleon however, took advantage of the situation and thus the Coup
of Brumaire would then grasp the nation under its control.
1799-1804: Napoleon seized control of the directory, and establishes
initially an enlightened governing force known as the consulate.
He consolidated his rule and reign, by firstly, suppressing rebellions in
France.
He normalized relations with church in Concordat in 1801.
He reconstructed the law of France, through the Napoleonic code, by
1804, he established himself as an emperor.
The Napoleonic code addressed the freedom of religion, a uniform law
of codes, social and legal equality, property rights, and end feudalism.
Also implemented state wide, education system, linked to the
University of France, and he also stopped Christianisation.
The empire 1804-1814 : Napoleon declared himself a French Emperor,
and a dictator. Napoleon was undefeated at the hands of the Austrians,
Russians, and Prussians, whom he defeated multiple times, taking sums
of land in mainland Europe.
Napoleon however subdue from defeating the British. Hence the
employment of the Continental system, an economic warfare tactic,
attempting to block off England from gaining exposure to Europe’s
shores, however this attempt failed.
Confederation of rhine: Eliminated roman holy empire and 40 new
states.
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Alexander the first, withdrew from the continental system, leading to
the invasion of 1812, by the French. Napoleon failed in this war, as
Russia utilized scorched earth tactics.
An army was brought again, however Napoleon was defeated by the 4
powers, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Britain-1813 battle of nations.
Napoleon after loss, was thrown into exile, he returned after, in 1815,
during a 100 day period where he attempted to build the revolution
again failing ultimately (battle of waterloo) leading to his final exile
and death.
Congress of Vienna: 1814-1815 : This congress included, Castlereagh
of Britain, Metternich of Austria, Talleyrand of France, and Alexander
the first of Russia: Simply restoring, the old boundaries, and restoring a
monarchial governing force, also imposed no reparations. Allies hoped
for stable and prosperous France, to alleviate any chance of French
aggression.
Restoration of Bourbon Dynasty: Out of fear of more instability and
revolutionary activities, Louis the 18, signed a charter, keeping some
gains of the previous revolution: offices open to all men, equality, a
two-chamber parliament, and the Napoleonic civil code, abolition of
feudalism.
Shift in Foreign Policy: Maintaining the balance of power in Europe,
also a clear faction between liberals vs conservatives.
Napoleon, during his conquest, took many villages and cities under his
reign of influence. Disallowing the local populations from practicing
their culture, producing resentment, because of Napoleons absence,
nations particularly like Germany had spurs of nationalism that never
existed previously.
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1814 Congress of Vienna and future developments: The 4 powers came
together, to stabilize the map of Europe, after upheavals and 20 so
years of complete instability.
Every power sitting at this congress has vested interest in ensuring that
no other power in Europe becomes too strong, to once again pose as a
threat to European stability.
Danger lies primarily in Poland and Saxony, most contested areas
nearing the Russian border. Poland, already has been dismembered,
and Saxony is a losing piece of land once owned by the French.
1814/15-1822: The holly alliance is established in Europe, promising to
hold regular meetings, to safeguard the stability of Europe.
This so-called congress system lasts for four international gatherings,
from Aachen (or Aix-la-Chapelle) in 1818 to Verona in 1822.
An international military was proposed by Alexander the first to control
any radical movements in Europe, but this idea was not adopted.
The main issue confronting the alliance during this historic period is, if
the powers are to intervene, when legitimate rulers are threatened by
internal revolution.
1822: Congress of Verona, Britain, opposes plans for intervention in
Spain and Latin America, and withdraws from the alliance.
Regardless, in 1823, a French army is sent to restore Ferdinand his
throne.
This marked the end of the congress system, yet the ideals of European
stability, and the view of maintaining monarchial absolutism remained
an important aspect of European affairs.
Prussia, Austria, and Russia, remained in the holly alliance as nations
that were attempting to hold the tide of progression and radicalism to
maintain their Monarchy’s.
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