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HIS 242H1

Course Code
Jennifer Jenkins

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HIIS 242 Mid-Term Review Notes
Week One- One World Ends and Another Begins
Pgs 1-67 (January. 11th)
Europe at Zenith, 1914 (chapter one)
Qualities gave Europeans a commanding position on the globe in 1914
oThought of themselves as the “civilized world”
oFuture seemed to promise the eventual Europeanization of the world
oIn 1914 more Europeans in the world than ever before or since
Europe and the World
Not through their numbers, but through their dynamism that Europeans dominated
the world in 1914
During the 19th century Europeans had become the first people to alter their
physical environment almost beyond recognition
Europe retained a decisive economic lead
o56% of worlds coal
o60% of the worlds iron and steel
European Traders, Travelers and Investors
Rest of the world was being increasingly drawn into a single world economy with
Europe at its hub
oEuropean mercantile practices
oInternational accounts for companies all over the world were usually
settled in London
oBritish firms owned 70% of the world’s shipping
oFreer international trade was the capstone of thisclassical-liberal system
Brief period from 1860-79, the world’s major trading nations
imposed almost no tariffs on foreign goods, and other kinds of
restrictions on trade virtually vanished
oDynamic Europeans were not content to merely trade with and travel to the
rest of the world, they also invested their money there

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In 1914, Europe was the source of 83% of the worlds foreign
Enterprise of the late 19th century- the direct seizure of immense tracts of land
around the world
oAll around Africa except Liberia and Ethiopia
Russia established itself as a major pacific power with the completion of the
Trans-siberian Railroad (1891-1903)
Only Japan managed to stem the european tide, by adopting European industrial
techniques with great success
Some colonies were almost purely commercial propositions
Territories acquired in the rush from 1885 to 1914 were rarely suitable for
European settlement
Europeans were able to defend their world empires in 1914 because of their near
monopoly of modern military force
oIt was unheard of for native forces to gain more than a temporary
advantage over the europeans
European Artists and Scientists
No American physicist or chemist expected to excel in his field without European
European Landscapes: Urban and Rural
Europe was the most urban of the continents in 1914
oNorthern and western Europe first region in which a majority of the
population lived in towns and cities
oFastest growing cities and towns were the newer, industrial ones
By the 1990s, Europe remained the most urbanized continent
Social and intellectual impacts of urban living
Life in the City
Industrial revolution poured more crowds into these slums

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19th century city-builders operated with a maximum of speculative real estate
development and a minimum of planning, except to locate the new wealthy
quarters west
European reactions to their cities at the opening of the 20th century was
In the midst of its magnificence the city seemed to many a human wasteland
European cities were still irresistible magnets as the 20th century opened
oAmbitious moved bc cities offered far wider opportunities for welth and
fame than the countryside
oRural poor moved bc a bad job was better than none
Much of European creativity could not be imagined without the environment of
towns and cities
Life in Peasant Europe
Traveler crossing the Elbe river into eastern Europe entered a world radically diff
from the efficient commercial farms and urbanized majorities of western and
northern Europe
Russian nobility and gentry still owned 14% of the land
oSame was true in southern Europe
oSouthern italy and spain were dominated by enormous estates
oLandowners excercised social and economic sway in their regions far
beyond the power that came from holding local political office
Agriculture was grossly inefficient
oOne third of Russian peasant holdings still lacked steel ploughs
Population of eastern and southern Europe was underemployed
In eastern and southern Europe a mass of land-hungry peasants formed a powder
keg of unrest ad anger on the eve of the first world war
The Rich and The Poor
Class and Social Rank
Society was highly stratified in Europe in 1914
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