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Study Guide

HIS109Y1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 120 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSG
HIS109Y1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 4: HIS109
The economic base of the middle ages (prior to the rise of towns)
The manorial system
How the emergence of currency and trade (vs. bartering) changed the middle ages
Very agricultural; greatest generator of wealth
Provided status (vassal w/ fief to provide military support)
4 centuries: pop of Euro declined dramatically
Effets: No eed to eperiet  differet agriultural tehologies  pop as’t ireasig
Breakdown of imperial system, recurrence of barbarian invasion, plague
8th and 9th century: intro of three fields vs two field system (on third fallow, one third harvest,
one third grazing) increased production
Value of aure as’t heail used, hoeer epaded due to irease i aials
9th century: 1st chemical fertilizer (marline)
Structure: based upon local organization that relied on agriculture
Technological changes from the plow (only worked on soft soil) to a metal plow with a piece of
wood to turn soil over (the heavy wheeled plow)
& the horse collar: horses became faster and effective (however expensive!)
Most peasants continued to use oxen
Crops could grow in western Europe, few were cultivated
Gre er fe grais; peasat diets ere’t utritious
Peasants deficient in protein (not allowed to hunt on Fief)
Eating meat became a caste mark; the knights ate a lot of meat and their diets became too rich
in protein
Rise of towns allowed for mixed agriculture
Most peasats did’t lie i isolatio, hoeer lied i illages for eessit
Villa=Manor
Manor is a large, self sufficient state, produced enough surplus so knight could live with leisure
and priest could live in leisure
Consisted of universal organization:
Fortified house of the landlord (to room peasants if need be)
Village of peasants in centre of the manor
Open fields (seigneuries), narrow strips of land
Economic and social structure of an entire continent for over half millennia
Agent/ Bailiff looked over land
Political allegiance fragmented: you only cared about your manor
Local in character and reflected value structure of feudal society
Liquid capital=money
Lack of coins minted in middle ages
The powerful owned land
No cash= no money economy
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Peasats ould’t e paid i ash
How did it work?
Partial domain was worked by entire peasant comm. Which went to fortified house of the
landlord
Rest of land parcelled out to peasants; portion of produce also went to landlord
=Security to the knights, landlords, bailiffs etc.
Emergence of serfdom: tied to the manor that you worked (a land slave)
Relied o our peasats, tie the to the soil
Secure work, food, protection, (some measure of) justice, sense of comm. With same financial
status as you
No revolts or rebellions due to no alternative
Common lands in the manor: lands that belonged to no one
A illage laksith i the aor; ould’t ork the lad so laksith eefitted fro surplus
produce
Miller was also paid in produce
Parish priest, same situation
Each manor was fundamentally different
Functional associations vs. customary practice (& legacy)
Things that had always been done a certain way
Determined by passing down customs via generational gaps
Laws can be overridden, custom does not change
Peasants were fearful of change and very conservative, any change would be for the worse
Fabric of manor changed w economic changes brought on by renaissance of 12th century
Creation of urban life, return of roman law, emergence of trade (long distance)
Change 1: Towns (consumers of food, not producers)
Increase in productivity, drove up price of food
Competition amongst townsmen
Booming economy of 12th century
Change 2. LD Trade
Needed money
Increase productivity
Cutting forests, growing of crops, draining of rivers: areas with no customary laws
You had to persuade peasants to move to these new cultivated areas under better terms
Fewer labour services
Threatened integrity of manorial system: the opportunity to escape, an alternative
Money had become more plentiful to service ld trade
Manors became drawn into money economy, changed into sharecropping
Fundamental change in European society
Intro of money: peasants had to stay on manor to be functional, so they had to find a way to
keep them
Engaged with peasants to compete with new areas
Peasants became a commodity
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