HISTORY109 EXAM 2012
1. who is the person
2. what is the person best known for
3. what did they do
4. when did they live/where did the person live
5. why is this significant( why are we looking at this figure in context
of western European history)
Not a person:
1. who the main people involved were
2. what the movement was about
3. what it solved
4. when it took place
5. where the movement took place
6. why is this significant, why does it matter to study of west European
- German monk and professor of theology
- Disputed the claim that freedom from God‘s punishment for sin should be purchased with
money – indulgences. Instead, salvation is not earned by good deeds but only as a gift of
God‘s grace through faith.
- Translated the bible from Latin to German so that it was more accessible – impacted the
- His marriage set a model for clerical marriage, allowing Protestant priests to marry
- His 95 Thesis (1517) critique of the papacy launched the protestant reformation
- Refusal to retract his writings as demanded by Pope Leo X at the Diet of Worms 1531
resulted in excommunication
- 1) treasury of merits popes right to sell this treasury to be resolved of your sins this way
and get out of purgatory, and he was against this, he believed in RELIGION THROUGH
FAITH ALONE simple religion
- thought that never stop studying the bible etc.
- equal before god, priests could marry
- certain countries such as France and Britain and Spain that had close ties to the pope who
got political favors, but Germans didn‘t have close ties to the pope so they wouldn‘t have
the benefits, being catholic wasn‘t in their political economic interests
- Protestantism stuck in areas where the sovereign adopted the religion Robert Owen – page 447
- welsh social reformer credited for his belief in utopian socialism
- Manager and partner of a cotton mill in Manchester/Britain
- Didn‘t like the moral standards of factory workers – very bad conditions
- Reform Act of 1832 – stimulate English trade union movement
- Trade union group singed up 500000 people that represented the whole country
- Believed that the trade union would become big enough that government would help
- Businesses blacklisted members of unions = they went on strike = bankruptcy
- 1835 – movement collapsed
- Preparation for Karl Marx
- 1712-1778 = entire 18 century
- Philosopher and radical political theorist
- Social Contract – attacked privilege and inequality
- Politics and morality should not be separated
- THE MOST INFLUENCIAL PHILOSOPHER
- The social contract= bible of the French revolution
- ―les philosophes‖
- catalyst of French revolution= revolutionary influence
- solution to the ‗ancient regime‘
- born in Geneva
- Believed in a perfect world: DNA was Geneva= utopian model
- He said industrial revolution corrupted mankind, wrote about it, entered in a competition
- NATURAL STATE= KEY TO HAPINESS, EVERYTHING ELSE WAS CORRUPTING
US FROM THAT
- Hated formal religion believed HIGHLY in spiritualism [individual feeling that matters]
- Rousseau gave a model very different those of Montesquieu: gave a model where
everything in current society had to be abolished and one that enabled every citizen
to have a say in this government
- Italian general and politician – on of Italy‘s ―fathers of the fatherland‖
- Revolutionary leader who led the fight to free Sicily and Naples from the Hapsburg
empire; the lands were then peaceable annexed to Sardinia to produce a unified Italy
- Drove pope out of the city
- Failed revolution in 1848 with Mazzini
- Credited as one of the unifiers of Italy
- Seeded all powers to Victor Immanuelle 2, = king of unified Italy
Treaty of Westphalia
- Collection of treaties linked to the fact that they ended the Thirty Years War - Signed in Westphalia. 1648. 30 years war, it ended.
- 30 years war: defenestration of Prague. Religious war (started) Ferdinand prince of
Poland, ruler of Bohemia, protestant controlled territory, year later: elected holy roman
emperor, rebellion against Ferdinand, in 10 years Ferdinand was going to push protestant
forces out of Germany and claim it for catholic side, King of Sweden Gustavus Aldolfus,
dies in middle of war. Ramification: against king of Sweden, but in 1635 who entered war
on side of protestants: France/Richelieu. Ended on territorial struggle. Hapsburg war.
Sovereignty was re-evaluated. Claims of HRE EMPEROR to Germany was gone,
Germany devastated. France became dominant power on continent.
- Renaissance – 1400
- Aimed to replace the scholastic emphasis on logic and philosophy with the study of
ancient languages, literature, history, and ethics
- Florence and Naples
- Rather than train professionals with strict practice, humanists sought to create a citizenry
able to speak and write with clarity, thus being capable of better engaging in civic life.
- Petrarch, da Vinci
On the Origin of Species
- 1848 Charles Darwin
- Scientific literatures which is the foundation of evolutionary biology
- Natural Selection, Studied finches
- Diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution
- Protestant reformation inspired interpretation of the bible
- Influenced Herbert Spender and the Survival of the Fittest – which influenced Hitler
Edict of Nantes- 1598
- Issued by Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France rights in a
nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic.
- Aimed to promote civil unity by offering general freedom of conscience to individual
- Marks the end of religious wars in France
- Father of classical liberalism
- English philosopher and influential enlightenment thinker
- Influenced American declaration of independence
- Theory of mind – origin of the concept of the identity and self.
- Tabula rasa = government with the consent of the governed
- Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician
- Leader of the Bolsheviks, headed the Soviet state from 1917-1924
- Lead the October revolution of 1917 - Fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War
- Worked to create a socialist economic system
- Wrote the Letter of Lenin
- Treaty Brest-Litovsk 1918. Takes Russia out of WW1
Feudalism th th
- A set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe between 9 – 15 centuries
- A system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in
exchange for service or labor
- Rules of the landowner
- Serfs – tied to the land. Feudal lord had jis manor and the peasents owed a percent of
everything that they made plus they needed to work a certain amount of time pon the land
that was purely owned by the lord. They were not aloud to hunt – but could set traps.
Couldn‘t cut down trees.
- Lord was the law. He was all that mattered. Deeply rooted in tradition.
- When the population of Europe goes up after the Black Death they need more food, start
to use lands that had previously been ignored. So people take over these ;ands and make
good deals to get people to come and work on them. Starts competition; but also there is
not a deeply rooted tradition here.
- Beginning of cash economy and urbanization ultimately brings down the feudal system.
- Medieval; in Russia until 1861.
- Beginning of structure of Europe really.
- Established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government
- Named after the city where the constitutional assembly took place, official name was
- Italian scholar, poet, and humanists – father of humanism. Writer and thinker. His dad was
a laywer. His dad had a job for the Pope in Avignon
- Really started the Renaissance.
- Cultural model, poet. Importance of the individual. Persona; psychological biography.
- Stressed that all the great thinkers were pagan; but we should look to them not to get to
heaven but to get you through this life.
- Through that speech, free will and words were the soul
- Wanted a break from the culture of the middle ages
- Stresses the importance of Latin. But wanted a traditional latin which ultimately brought
down the popularity of latimn because it couldn‘t grow.
- Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis - Developed theories about the unconscious mind
- English military and political leader
- Civil war
- French philosophe and author who was the guiding force behind the publication of the first
encyclopedia – showed how reason could be applied to nearly all realms of thought, and
aimed to be a compendium of human knowledge.
John Stuart Mill
- 1806 – 1872
- English liberal philosopher
- Faith in human reason led him to support a broad variety of civic and political freedoms
for men and women, including the right to vote and right to free speech
Treaty of Versailles
- Signed June 28, 1919
- Ended WW1, requiring Germany to surrender and accept responsibility for the war
- Allied powers – France, British Empire, USA, Italy, etc.
- Germany would pay reparations to the allies – 33$ billion in 1919
- Germany must surrender land they gained – Alsace and Lorraine etc.
- Disarmed Germany – only allowed 100,000 volunteers, forbid air force, reduce navy
- W. Wilsons 14 points
- French enlightenment writer and philosopher – Philosophe
- Human dignity against state and church oppression
- Bad writer
- Did like attention from the nobles and royalty. Ex Mme de Pompadour
- Kind of an aristocrat himself; not as influencial as Rousseau
- Went to prison; but had friends that got him out.
Otto von Bismarck
- Prussian prime minister and later the first chancellor of a unified Germany, which he
helped unify, helping consolidate the nations economic and political power
- Realpolitik and Kulturkamph
- Father of unifier of Germany.
- Worked under Willima I
- Military Genious
- Led war on Dennmark, France, Austria - Got Schleswig-Holstein and Alsace-Lorraine
- 7 weeks war in Austria; leads to foundation of North German Confederation
- Kingdom of Germany created under Kaiser William the First.
- Hired him because he was spending too much on military and started to be hated.
- Method of critical though from 1100-1500
- A program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an
increasing pluralistic context.
- Originates from Christian monastic schools
- British political activist and leader of the suffragette movement, helping women win the
right to vote
- Conflict between the church and state in medieval Europe – about whether secular
authorities have a legitimate role in appointing ecclesiastical offices like bishop etc.
- Came to head when Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV of Germany both claimed
the right to appoint and invest bishops with the regalia of office.
- Settled by the concordat of Worms in 1122 – King got right to invest with secular
authority, but not sacred authority = bishops owe allegiance to both pope and king
1. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April
1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing
the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France. Henry was the
second monarch of the House of Tudor, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
2. Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the
Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the
Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries,
and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he
remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his
excommunication from the Catholic Church
3. Henry VIII feared that the Wars of the Roses (civil wars) would break out unless
there was a male heir to the crown. (Female heir resulted in civil war). Henry became
obsessed with having a male heir
4. 1529 also saw reformation of parliament.
5. Pressure was brought on the church to support Henry. He made sure that Lutherans
were caught publicly and burned. By 1532 Henry was angry and frustrated that he
wasn‘t getting his annulment. His lack of satisfaction from Rome drove him to attack
the Catholic church in England severely (bishops were forbidden to pay taxes to
Rome). Excommunicated from church. 6. When Henry died in 1547 the English church had been reformed but was not
Protestant (was Catholic).
7. Tomas Hobbes worked for him. opposed the king as the head of the Church and so he
got his head chopped off.
1. Disturbed leader of the Third Reich/3 German Nation-State
2. Best known for founding, and leading the NAZI party during ww2
3. he read anti sematic theory produced by writers who carries social Darwinism to
extremes, perverted social Darwinism that strength, racial qualities,=ensure
survival of best Europeans, he was desiring to destroy this society and have one
he could lead and rise and be popular, 'pure german race' could also thrive; hitler
wanted to punish the world. He wrote Mein Kampf when in Jail for attempting a
failed coup called the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. Mein Kampf became NAZI
4. Lead Germany from 1930‘s to his suicide in 1945
5. Occupied most of Europe in 1938-1945, annexed the Rhineland, sent millions of
people to their deaths, attacked Jews, Communists, Marxists, Homosexuals, etc.
This man destroyed Europe and his NAZI ideology and mass nationalism caused
world war 2.
1. Benito Mussolini 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician who led
the National Fascist Party, ruling the country from 1922 to his ousting in 1943,
and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of fascism.
2. They was a far left extreme socialist journalist and writer, Benito Mussolini,
Wrote against the Libyan invasion, wrote fervently against the right, and was in
jail for 5 years, He abhorred nationalism because he was a Marxist, He was the
most conspicuous of the left wing political group in Italy, He saw the war (ww1)
as a crusade against a nation who was holding Italians
3. He wanted to join the Entente against Austria
4. Because the socialist party was technically pacifist, he was fired from his position
for doing this
5. Although we don‘t know exactly what triggered this radical and immediate
change, we do know that he wasn‘t the only socialist to make this dramatic
6. Fasci sprung up; they were cells who wanted to promote Italian intervention in the
7. Italy did eventually enter the war in a secret treaty with Britain, in which they
were promised the parts of Eastern Europe that they wanted back
8. Italian prime minister left the Versailles treaty because the Italians were not given
what they wanted
9. This was because Wilson didn‘t think that secret treaties should be recognized
10. Italy felt duped after this; extremely angry because 600,000 lives were lost for nothing
11. This fasci eventually became thugs and joined up with arditi after the war
12. They were violent, passionate thugs
13. The union of the arditi and the fasci represented the formation of the Italian fascist
14. They entered the Italian political system
1. Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English
naturalist.[I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from
common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching
pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.
2. Darwin—the most dramatic of scientific thinkers to challenge mindset of
3. Darwin took last step, made all things independent of God, establishing a number
of forces described in Evolution of Species (Creation is fake, man has power to
change environment and himself)
4. Contribution of Darwin: natural selection
5. Nature/environment in which a species lives will select those variants of an
offspring that will survive to reproduce themselveshave more offspring
6. In 1871 published Descent of Man that tried to prove that humans are the same as
animals (as our environment changes, we have to change, we have evolved from
7. Social Darwinism (Darwin was not a social Darwinist): accepted in Europe as a
scientific truth, justified capitalism, explained imperialism
8. Darwin was shocked by implications: hated publicity, psychosomatic illness,
depression, hiding, he felt uncomfortable about his ideas
9. Implications for these ideas: belief that it‘s not cruelty to not destroy another
civilization (it‘s a part of evolution—getting world to be a better place.
1. William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British
Liberal statesman. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served as Prime Minister
four separate times (1868–1874, 1880–1885, February–July 1886 and 1892–
1894), more than any other person. Gladstone was also Britain's oldest Prime
Minister, 84 years old when he resigned for the last time.
2. Secret ballot in 1862
3. 1870: all appointment to civil services were open to anyone
4. 1870 education act
5. in Ireland, it was Gladstone who disestablished Anglican church
6. he agitated for fair treatment of Irish
7. Irish Question
8. Gladstone agreed that the state couldn‘t be a passive observer to change. Progress
must be helped along/institutionalized and defined. The state must be actively engaged in improvement of lives/citizens.
9. Gladstone wanted to abolish tariffs on books/newspapers/journals so the price of
these dropped dramatically so that everyone could afford them—added education
to working classes
1. Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), was an English philosopher
2. best known today for his work on political philosophy.
3. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political
philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.
4. Hobbes was a champion of absolutism for the sovereign
5. but he also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: the
right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of
the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the
state); the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and
based on the consent of the people; and a liberal interpretation of law which
leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid.
- 1378 – 1417.
- The Pope Clement V decided that Rome was not a secure place and so he went to
Avignon and decided that he loved it. At this point he moved all the papal offices
to Avignon. He is asked to return but he dies.
- Babylonian Captivity – started in 1305-1378.
- So in 1409, institution of two Popes; Urban 6 ruled from Rome (Italian) and
Clement 6 ruled from Avignon. Both excommunicated each other – anti-Christ
- People started losing faith in the Church.
- We need to do something about this. Meet in Constance; HRE empire and they
elect Pope John 23 .rd
- Well fuck now there are three popes. Sp then they elected Martin 5 and that ended
- Was Henry de Navarre who married Catherine de Medici‘s daughter (St.
Bartholomew‘s day) Later became king. He was a Huguenot but later converted to
catholic and made the Edict de Nantes. Religious toleration = peace in the country
plus the Huguenots were very wealthy so it was good for the economy.
- He was assassinated.
- Henry VI + Marie de Medici (who had another son Gaston) they hired Cocini as
their minister. Hated Louis XIII who killed Cocini and had his mom exiled. She
met up with the nobles, who also hated the Kind and they tried to revolt (led civil
wars against the king)
- Louis hired Richelieu. Beginning of Absolutism
- So he took down the walls of LaRochelle – reconfirmed the Edict of Nantes. And religious toleration was incredible.
- All private fortresses destroyed in 1626. And fobided dual; killed two young
nobles to set an example.
- Nobles = pissed this is when they go to Marie de Medici.
- Medici got Gaston and all of the Nobles, and led war against Richelieu and his
army. Medici‘s army died. Gaston is sent to prison.
- Worked for Louis XIII. First to talk about absolutism.
- He was genious
- Said control protestant Huguenots; control the nobility; do something about the
- Created the office of the intendants.
- Anything against the crown was punished
- Established Lettres de Cachet – spy army
- Too many taxes in the people because of the 30 years war. People are going
- Absolutism. Roi Soleil.
- JB. Colbert
- He built Versailles – bankrupt the treasury by building this but Colbert never
- Everything assed through the king.
1. Jewish French soldier in French army
2. during late 19 early 20 century
3. Framed for a crime he did not commit, giving information of German army to French,
well known he didn‘t commit the crime, army refused a new trial, so what happened?
4. Conservatives of French Gov. used it to get more control of army and people, became
big political issue
5. pardoned in 1906, moderate republicans lost control of radical republicans.
6. Officially church and state separated in 1905 due to Dryfus affair.
- Ruler of Second French Empire. Nephew of Napoleon I
- Last monarch of France.
- Coup d‘Etat in 1851 and came to thrown in 52
- War with Austria in 59 which largely brought Italian unification (this is when he
backed ooout at the last minute because his population was catholic)
- Oversaw the renovation of Paris. - Overthrown after Battle of Sudan in 1870 – Franco-Prussian war and lost Alsace-
Laurenne to Germany.
- Utopian socialist on horseback
- Allowed for the liberalization of the Empire in 1860.
- Both houses of Parliment were aloud to dissent (disagree with him)
- Most popular man in France – people loved him.
- Calvinist religion; aloud for by Zwingly.
- Predestination. But still live a pious life; out of retrictions on what you could do.
Made puthic humiliations, hated the catholic church.
- Mid16 century.
- Simplification of religion
- Second most important figure of the reformation
- Prime minister before Hitler; the one who signed the treaty of Versailles. He was
Council of Trent
- Reinforced the Catholic Religion, Philip II (Charles Quint son)
Galileo Galilei 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642 was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer,
and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include
improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism.
Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern
physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science".
His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the
phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean
moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked
in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other
Klemens von Metternich
- Austrian politician. Called for legitimization of powers and conservatism.
Congress of Vienna = major player. 1814-1815
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto (Das Kommunistische Manifest), originally titled Manifesto
of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) is a short 1848
publication written by the German Marxist political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. Commissioned by the Communist League, it laid out the League's
purposes and program. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical
and present) and the problems of capitalism, rather than a prediction of communism's
potential future forms.
The book contains Marx and Engels' Marxist theories about the nature of
society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto
existing society is the history of class struggles". It also briefly
features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would
eventually be replaced by socialism, and then eventually communism.
The French Revolution:
-Rousseau (The Social Contract): preservation of liberty through a social contract to
-Montesquieu (The Spirit of Laws): healthy political order to maintain its own balance,
separation and balance of power to combat despotism
-Tennis Court Oath: declaring the Third Estate to be the National Assembly, to create a
Constitution, maintain principles of monarchy
-Sieyes (What is the Third Estate): arguing for power to the Third Estate, wanting
participation in politics, aim of mobilizing public support, Third Estate necessary for the
good of the nation
-Third Estate of Dourdan (Grievance Petitions): wanting equality for members of the
Third Estate and political participation, equal responsibility for taxation, etc.
-National Assembly (Declaration of the Rights of Man): setting forth inalienable rights,
freedom and equality, sovereignty belongs to the whole nation, free speech
-Ure (The Philosophy of Manufactures): labor easier for the factory workers, work can be
done by people who are too young or old to work in agricultural production
-Rules of a Factory in Berlin: strict conditions for workers, harsh overseers, don‘t care
about workers but rather about the work they‘re doing
-Engels (Conditions of the Working Class in England): horrible living conditions, too
many people packed into small spaces, raw sewage in the streets
-Comte de Saint-Simon (―the Incoherence and Disorder of Industry‖): calling for
industrialists to do something about the lives of the workers who were miserable, hungry,
-Robert Owen (A New View of Society): factory work could be reformed so living
conditions and working conditions were good for the workers (but weren‘t currently
-Captain Swing: trouble finding and keeping a job, no food, misery
IDs from previous exams:
1st Semester: 2nd Semester:
Feudalism Alfred Dreyfus Treaty of Westphalia Robert Owen
Denis Diderot Giuseppe Garibaldi
Humanism Weimar Republic
Edict of Nantes Sigmund Freud
Petrarch Treaty of Versailles
Henry VIII Benito Mussolini
Thomas Hobbes Vladimir Lenin
Voltaire Adolf Hitler
Mary Wollstonecraft John Stuart Mill
Great Schism Charles Darwin
Martin Luther William Gladstone
Louis XIV Woodrow Wilson
Essay Question Topics:
-feudalism and manorialism: how they shaped medieval life -new forces which
undermined feudalism and manorialism in the 14th century
-transition from feudalism to Renaissance/Reformation Europe -political, economic, and
religious changes, 1350-1517
-as revolt by new social and economic groups against established structures and
-intellectual and religious developments of Renaissance Europe which paved the way for
the Reformation in 1517
-Reformation as religious and cultural struggle between old and new ideas?
-rise of absolutism in 16th and 17th centuries
-justification (in theory) and practice (by monarchs and advisors)
-Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment – role in creation of modern Europe
-more influential than French Revolution and Napoleon?
-political, economic, and intellectual roots of the French Revolution
-primary goals of first year
-Congress of Vienna – role of statesmen at and afterwards in preventing warfare in
Europe for over a century
-Industrial Revolution: social, political, and economic changes
-how it affected the lives of the working class – positive and negative effects of industrialization and market forces
-response of middle and upper classes to the plight of the poor
-rise of nationalism in 19th century Europe
-role of nationalism, liberalism, and socialism in Austria-Hungary, Germany, and France
between 1848 and 1914
-conservatives‘ battle against liberalism and socialism in the 19th century
-principle aims of conservatives like Burke and Metternich
-why did conservatives lose ground to liberals and socialists?
-attraction of fascism and communism in the inter-war period
-crisis of democracy in inter-war period and how this paved the way for the rise of
Black Death – the most devastating natural disaster in European history in the
century. Ravaging Europe and causing economic, social, political, and cultural
Bubonic plague, the most common and most important form of the Black Death,
was spread by
black rats infested with fleas who were host to the deadly bacterium Yersinia
pestis. The Black
Death was the first major epidemic disease to strike Europe since the 7
The century, an absence that helps explain medieval Europe‘s remarkable
population growth. The plague reached Europe in October 1347, when Genoese
merchants brought it from Caffa to the island od Sicily off the coast of southern
Italy. Mortality figures for the Black Death were incredibly high. Italy was hit
especially hard. The European population declined by 25-50 percent between
1347-1351. The Black Death had spread to northern Europe by the end of 1348.
Jacquerie – Peasant revolt broke out in 1358 in Northern France. The
normal order by the Black Death and the subsequent economic dislocation were
factors in causing the revolt, but the ravages created by the Hundred Year‘s War
the French peasantry. (the 14th century witnessed a number of revolt)
Hundred Years War – Began in a burst of knightly enthusiasm.
The Great Schism – Began in 1378 and ended in 1417; election of Martin V.
After the death of
Gregory XI, the college of Cardinals met in conclave to elect a new pope. The
citizens of Rome
were fearful that the French majority will pick another Frenchman. The guards
of the conclave
warned the cardinals about the risk if they didn‘t choose an Italian. They elected
archbishop Bari – Pope Urban VI (1378-1389) Pope Urban VI made it clear his
plans to reform
the papal curia and even to swamp the college of cardinals with enough new
Italian cardinals to
eliminate the French majority. The French cardinals withdrew from Rome, issued a manifesto
saying they had been coerced by the mob and that Urban‘s election was
therefore null and
void. The dissenting cardinals chose a Frenchman, who took the title Clement
VII and promptly
returned to Avignon. Since Urban remained in Rome, there were now two
what has been called the Great Schism of the Church. The Conciliar Movement
– The GS led large numbers of churchmen to take up this theory, known as
conciliarism – in the belief that only a general council of the church could end
the schism and bring reform to the church in its ―head and members‖
Mysticism – the immediate experience of oneness with God
Babylonian Captivity – 1305-1378. Pope (Clement the 5th) – retreated/went to
of France)Moved all offices of Church. Begins the Babylonian Captivity. 1370s
– Preaching of
two female saints – preached before the Pope asked for him to return. Captivity
then the Pope died shortly after.
People rioted 11 French Cardinals and 4 Italian Cardinals.
Cardinals are locked up to elect Pope (think of Angels and Demons)
Italian was elected, wanted to bring spirituality and piety back to the church.
protested of the election and elected a French Pope. Took the church back to
Two Popes – One in Rome, one in Avignon.
Scandal – the faithful Catholics of Europe didn‘t know which one was real.
1494 – First invasion of Italian Peninsula
1453 – Byzantine Empire fell to Turks
Diet of Worms – 1521. Luther continued his revolt – translated the Bible into
with his disciples they worked towards ―Lutheranism‖ effects of the protestant
Peasant Revolt of 1525 - The Peasantry revolted against their landlords (1525) –
Luther to come help support them. Luther charged them for revolting against
the secular society
and against God himself. (Justly punished by the forces of the secular authority
– then they
were slaughtered by thousands) – stain on reputation. Needed authority to
spread his religious
method. Chose the forces of establishment, power, princely rule – allowed the
peasants to be
slaughtered. Luther didn‘t see his revolution as a popular one. Schmalkaldike League (1531) - Nion in order to protect the Lutheran revolt.
Empire of Charles the 5th was too immense.
Diet of Augsburg (1553) - Compromise reached ―the religion of the prince
would determine the
religion of all of its subjects‖. Lutheran revolt was very much in interest for the
Half of Germany was officially Protestant. Luthers revolt changed the unity off
Roman Inquisition (1542) – in Rome Calvinism subscribed to thought control
through religion. Roman Churches began to do the same thing. Individual men
and women and their deeds had to be approved, faith had to be reinforced, and
enforced. Index of Forbidden books
First proposed in 1559
Roman catholics were told what they could and could not read (know)
If you had the knowledge of the books, you were just as guilty. List of
forbidden books grew
more and more every year (Erasmus, Machiavelli) - any sort of criticism
directed towards the
church itself. Printing press allowed protestant thoughts to be widely distributed
The Wars of Religion - Horrific wars that went on for 150