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Exam essay answers - Peace of Westphalia + Appeasement

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Alison Smith

PEACE OF WESTPHALIA The Peace of Westphalia was made up of a collection of treaties that put an end to the Thirty Years War. The agreement was among the states, including Spain and the Dutch. It recognized the sovereignty of Netherlands, and German states. This meant Europe would not unite under one emperor. This essentially meant a decline for the Habsburg monarchy. The Peace of Westphalia resulted from the first modern diplomatic congress and initiated a new order in central Europe based on the concept of state sovereignty. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on two principles: Territoriality and the exclusion of external actors from domestic authority structures. The treaty established the two core principles. First was the king is sovereign and is not subject to the political will of anyone else. The absolute power of rulers was linked to their own specific territory. The second was that of the king being able to determine the religion practiced in his realm. The principle prohibited interference in internal affairs of other states and provided the basis for international law today. Westphalia is regarded as the start of organized international system. It provided the future of system building. This was the point that saw the start of embassies, communication points, and essential communication centers for orderly cooperation. Westphalia made orderly cooperation possible this is the first reason it is the start of a successful international relations system in Europe. It opened the floor to diplomatic negotiations. Peace of Westphalia also ended the Thirty Years War in Europe. A great conference was held for peace this is the first main example of this settling between enemy powers. This is the example of how Westphalia laid the foundation for the development of organized international relations. Other examples include the Treaty of Versailles and the Congress of Vienna, all of which followed it. The Peace of Westphalia taught powers how to settle conflicts, and this one of its main positive contributions. Westphalia addressed the issue of hegemony and territorial settlements in Europe. One state was not allowed to be the most dominant power in Europe. The other countries wouldnt allow it. All the countries involved had specific borders, within which they were allowed to have their own practices and laws. It enforced the principle of equality between states. They were not allowed to intervene in other states matters. There were a lot of religious and territorial wars over sovereignty at that time in Europe. They were based on ideology and this causes negative effects on maintaining IR. Ideological beliefs hinder international diplomacy. The Westphalia Treaty rebuffed Habsburgs hegemony. The other powers of Europe felt threatened by the Habsburgs. They resisted Habsburg domination of Europe. There would have been an imperial power struggle for nature of IR. Habsburgs entered the war for power reasons, not religious or national
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