Brophy Vol. 1&2 readings (Important points from each reading)

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Kenneth Bartlett

HIS109 Brophy Readings Humanism & Renaissance Italy High Middle Ages, 1000-1300 (350-61) The Charter of Liberties of St. Omer, William of Normandy Issued to citizens of St. Omer in 1127 Such charters were the foundations of urban freedom, reveal what city people needed to conduct their business Embodies results of bargaining between the merchants & their lord 9) I make free from the cavagium, that is, from the head tax, & from payments to the court officials. The Anonymous Treatise on Husbandry (France, late 13 cent.) th Intended to be a guide for an official, a steward, in charge of managing a monastic estate or manor Job of the farm manager was to keep track of resources, maximize income, oversee the lesser officials bailiff & the reeve (sr. peasant tenant) Husbandry: the work of raising crops & animals Window into the lives of farmers C.19) If there is a manor in which there is no dairy then it is always advisable to have a woman there for much less money than a man would take. unequal pay, differentiation between the division of labour between men & women Medieval Commercial Contracts & Reports (Genoa) Urban society required reliable contracts Two basic types of documents: 1) commenda & 2) societas partnerships in which the parties contributed varying amounts of capital & labour to a joint enterprise & divided profits accordingly Letter from an Italian merchant in France, shows his work & worries Renaissance, 1350-1550 (551-59; 564-67) I Libri della Famiglia (On the Family), Alberti Alberti embodied the Renaissance man Written in dialogue, among the members of the Alberti family gathered at the deathbed of Leon Battistas father Examines the ideal family as a unit for the begetting & rearing of children, for the amassing & maintaining of fortunes, & for the accumulation & exercise of power Children act as pledges & securities of marital love & kindness. At the same time they offer a focus for all a mans hopes & desires. His children keep his own position & his true image in the family. The Lives of the Artists, Vassari Vassari traveled around Italy on various commissions, & gathered specific information about artists & their works Insight into the practice of art in the Renaissance Artists seemingly in divine regard He (God) determined to give this artist the knowledge of true moral philosophy & the gift or poetic expression, so that everyone might admire & follow him as their perfect exemplar in life, work, & behaviour & in every endeavour, & he would be acclaimed as divine. The Notebooks, Da Vinci Discusses techniques used in his art Oration on the Dignity of Man, Della Mirandola Figure of Renaissance Humanism (heretical) Man is the intermediary between creatures, the intimate of gods, the king of lower beings, by the acuteness of his senses, by the discernment of his reason, & by the light of his intelligence the interpreter of nature, the interval between fixed eternity & fleeting time. * With freedom of choice & with honour, as though the maker & molder of thyself (God), thou mayest fashion thyself in whatever shape thou shalt prefer. humans have the power to shape themselves, notion of free will Whatever seeds each man cultivates will grow to maturity & bear in him their own fruit. notion of free will (goes against what the Church professed at the time) Northern Humanism, (567-80) The Prince, Machiavelli Fundamental truths of modern politics: 1) necessity of national unity based on a common language, culture, & economy; 2) preservation of national unity through the concentration & exercise of power by the state Advice for the prince (or ruler) If you wish to widely known as a generous man, you must seize every opportunity to make a big display of your givingprince of this character bound to use up his entire revenue in works of ostentation, in the end if he wants to keep a name of generosity, he will have to load his people with exorbitant taxes & squeeze money out of them in every way he can. No prince should mind being called cruel for what he does to keep his subjects united & loyal. To be feared is much safer than to be loved keeps the people obedient, they wont do something for fear of punishment General rule about men they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, & deceivers, fearful of danger & greedy for gain People can be easily manipulated by the prince Prince has to be a fox that is wary of traps (cannot defend itself from wolves), & a lion to overawe the wolves (lion cannot protect themselves from traps) Ten Colloquies, Desiderius Erasmus Renewal of Christian piety through the study of Christian literature, the Bible & church fathers above all Christian Humanism northern European variant of classical Italian Humanism Colloquies written to inspire Christian conduct Utopia, Thomas More Describes a pagan, communist city-state in which all policies & institutions were governed by reason Such a state was contrasted with the polity of Christian Europe with its greed, self-interest, & violence As long as you have private property, & as long as cash money is the measure of all things, it is really not possible for a nation to be governed justly or happily Absolute equality of goods, eradication of private property (So long as private property remains, there is no hope at all of effecting a cure & restoring society to good health.) The Reformation (591-606; 609-13) 95 Theses, Martin Luther Founder of Protestantism Sale of indulgences in 1517 provoked Luther to public protest (salvation the result of divine grace, do not have buy your way into heaven) Sale of indulgences went to rebuild church of St. Peter 86) why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than the money of poor believers?) 27) They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out of purgatory. The Large Catechism, 1530, Martin Luther Many pastors & preachers are negligent Catechism should be read daily, this is Gods command Statement of Grievances, Diet of Worms, 1521 Diet of Worms meeting of Emperor Charles V with representatives of the German estates, & the appearance of Martin Luther 11) Main concern for the constant rise in the cost of Episcopal confirmations & pallium fees is the proliferation of offices in Rome. Rome obtains money by means of a number of cunning & novel devices. Popes & bishops reserve to themselves certain sins & offences from which, they say, only they can absolve us. Roman greed & covetousness cause sins & vices to multiply in the world. The Twelve Articles of the Peasants of Swabia, Sebastian Lotzer Document of the great agrarian revolt known as the Peasants War of 1525 Linked the social & political grievances of the peasants with the evangelical principles of the Reformation We ought to have the authority & power for the whole community to elect & appoint its own pastor. We also want authority to depose a pastor who behaves improperly. Will not allow the lords to oppress them Punished not according to the severity of the case, but rather out of great ill will and sometimes out of favoritism. judged not according to bias of the judge The Wars of Religion (627-31) Draft of Ecclesiastical Ordinances, September & October 1541, John Calvin Doctrines advocating Protestantism Return to a simpler form of Christianity It will be good in this connection to follow the order of the ancient Church, for it is the only practice which is shown us in Scripture. Word of God be neither dishonoured nor scorned because of the ill reputation of the ministers. corruption of scripture as result of ministers The Spiritual Exercises, St. Ignatius of Loyola
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