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HIS 109 Semester 2 Lecture Notes 2013 & Brief Exam Review.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII I Jan 7, 2013 The French Revolution Review -constitutional monarchy -Jacobins -Wars of French Revolution (1792-1802) -Radical Republic -Reign of Terror -Maximilian Robespierre -Thermidorian Reaction -Directory (11/ 1795-11/1799) -Napoleon’s Coup of 18 Brumer (Month in the French Revolutionary Calendar; 1792 = year 1) NAPOLEON -took power in the summer of 1799 -result of European powers wanting to suppress the upheaval of the revolution -Russia and Britain were about to invade France to restore the monarchical system in Europe -French needed a strong, central power to preserve the revolution and protect France -needed a popular figure for the French to support -this was Napoleon; glorious general -government officials figured Napoleon would be the popular figurehead while they governed the new revolutionary France, Napoleon saw it another way -Napoleon was made head consulate (of 3) -he made himself console for life and later Emperor (1804) -Napoleon saw himself as a child of the revolution -nonetheless, he believed imperialism was the only way to preserve the new France -“the government is entrusted into the hands of the emperor” -still, Napoleon needed legitimacy to rule the way he wanted to rule -Concordat, Peace ofAmiens, Civil code were acts he used to restore peace in revolutionary, anarchic France -the peace he created using these made his power legitimate -he made peace withAustria in 1801, peace with Britain in 1802 (short lived) -these peace treatise made him even more popular in war weary France Concordat of 1801 -agreement between Napoleon and the Catholic Church -wanted to heal the rift between the revolution and the Church, signed on Easter -revolution had sold off a lot of Church lands -Napoleon gave the Catholic Church official recognition in France not the official religion of France, but at least recognized its existence and predominance in France -state would pay all French Bishops and most priests -Church run, state financed -Clergy would no longer have to pledge allegiance to the state, instead only to obey the laws -allowed religious citizens to reconnect with the revolution HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII II -school system was centralized under the government, no longer the church -standardized French language -efficient Civil Code (1804) -a.k.a Code Napoleon -united all the messy French laws into one central body of law -entrenched the values of the revolution -abolished privilege, property rights; made all subject to the law -also reversed other revolutionary laws -illegitimate children had full rights to inheritance under revolutionary law, civil code revoked this -divorce was fairly liberal in revolutionary law, civil code returned to patriarchal values Napoleonic Military Conquest -annexed French rule all over Europe and oversees -French empire made of France, satellite states (family owned states like Spain), and independent allies of France -set up the continental system -blockade of Europe from Britain to choke British trade Napoleon and the German States -Germany was not one state, divided into 300 statelets that loosely spoke German -Holy Roman Empire was usually ruled by the emperor of theAustrian Empire (Hapsburg) -1803, Napoleon reorganizes the German states -dictates the former Austrian Emperor to make his states more systematic, no more ecclesiastical (church run) states -a.k.a mediatisation -Germany went from 300 to 30 states Confederation of the Rhine 1806 -created by Napoleon -started as a union of 15 German states -expanded to almost all German states except Prussia andAustria -Napoleon was the ‘protector’ HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII III -end of Holy Roman Empire -former emperor dissolved the Holy ROman EMpire and made himself Emperor of Austria -German self consciousness, begin to unite German culture/ nation Jan 9, 2013 Napoleon Lecture Review -Holy Roman Empire/ Hapsburg Empire (post 1804,Austria) -Emperor ruled both HRE and Hapsburg Empire -Francis II dissolved the HRE; withholds imperial status -renames empireAustria; renames himself Emperor Francis I ofAustria -During Napoleons reign, HRE/ HE divided intoAustria, Confederation of the Rhine, Prussia etc. -Napoleon named protector of the Con. of the Rhine German National Consciousness -nationalism becomes the modern organizing method after Napoleon’s France -the revolutionary nation (people) was sovereign over monarchy -some states liked this liberation by France, some didn’t -Spain, Germany, Italy resisted French revolutionary customs -felt separate nations deserved -concept of the nation should determine sovereignty, not ‘universal’(French) revolutionary ideals -German culture begins to become united; music, art, history, traditions at this point ex. Brothers Grimm -philosophers began to refer to the German states as ‘the conquered German people’ -Napoleon fell because of flawed policies, resistance, and overextension -Duke of Wellington (1759-1852) -Invasion of Russia (1812) -Russia depended on wheat trade with Britain -Napoleon’s continental blockade limited this -Napoleon wanted to restore Polish King to the throne (Poland was ruled by Russia) -defeat at Leipzig (1813) -coalition European powers defeat Napoleon from all sides -Napoleon replaced by Louis XVIII (1814-1824 except for the hundred days) THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA: 1814-1815 -how do we restore Europe after Napoleon? -how do we eliminate revolutionary ideals? HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII IV -New Europe: Kingdom of France (Louis XVIII), Prussia expanded,Austrian Empire expanded to parts of Italy -post-Napoleonic victors: Britain, Prussia, Russia,Austria -we want to stamp out the French revolution but we want the new France to support its new monarchy and be successful so France was highly supported at the congress of Vienna -4 victors listed above decided to secretly make major decisions together away form the other delegates -Czar Alexander I (r. 1801-1825) -showed up to the Congress in person -believed Russia deserved the dominant role in shaping the peace because of its role in Napoleon’s defeat -Prince KarlAugust von Hardenberg of Prussia was deaf, sent an emissary to the congress -Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) -Austrian Foreign Minister -later Austrian Chancellor -believed the int’l state system could be in balance, some things would throw off that balance (French revolution, Napoleon etc.) -France became more powerful than the other states -new goal was to restore the balance Goals of the Congress of Vienna Legitimacy -the nation/ people are not sovereign, hereditary monarchs are -set up a system that would internationally suppress revolutions by restoring monarchies -feared liberalism and nationalism -restore aristocratic rule -stability -no power would be able to overthrow the BOP -Balance of Power -congress system: dynastic legitimacy and balance of power -restoration of Louis XVIII -set up territorial defensive barriers are France and Russia -ex. Prussian territory was expanded but separated to buffer French aggression or Russian aggression -Austria didn’t want Prussia to be too powerful because they would challenge Austrian dominance over the German states -Germanic Confederation -made up of parts of Prussia and the Germanic states -led by a parliament Concert of Europe -system of annual meetings among the great powers -would prevent revolutions HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII V -first collective security agreement -restoration Europe -old dynasties put back in power -still, new rulers could no longer dictate in an absolutist manner -ex. Czar of Russia had to sign a liberalist constitution in Poland to sustain control -relative European peace 1815-1848 -modern conservatism Jan 14, 2013 INDUSTRIALIZATION I -Industrial Revolution (1760’s-1850) -wasn’t a revolution to contemporaries in the same way as the French Revolution -slow, people wouldn’t have noticed the change -didn’t effect of Europe uniformly -thus, better referred to simply as industrialization -changes in how things were made, transported, lifestyles, where/ how people lived/ worked What is growth? -GDP, value of goods and services produced by a nation -growth in the amount of manufactured goods produced What is structural change? -fewer people employed in agriculture -what’s being traded/ exported? Patterns of trade -cotton textiles; raw materials coming in, manufactured goods going out Malthusian Trap -Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) analyzed the relationship b/w population/ wages/ production -the pattern of human production since the beginning of human history -things aren’t always getting better and aren’t going to keep getting better - + prosperity = + population -high populations drain a preset amount of resources -population grows, resources don’t -same with the price of labour, more people, more workers, amount of work that needs to be done does not change -thus, wages can drop, meanwhile, workers still need to feed their families based on the amount of unchanging resources -thus, wages drop, prices rise, eventual collapse/ war/ famine etc. -‘real wages’refers to purchasing power of your income as opposed to the amount of money in your income HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII VI -Malthus proposed birth controls -he did not anticipate how technology would alter this natural pattern -industrialization allowed a break in the Malthusian trap -populations rose, but what you could do with your income also rose Technological Change -coal is the key -preciously, animal power, human power, wood -people were dependent on the fertility of the Earth’s surface alone -18th c. Britain was running out of forests -coal was plentiful -people figured this source would last forever -transportation technology also improved -brought Europe closer to the new world -Europe’s geographic region made it easier for European’s to access exotic sources of raw materials -furthermore, if population outgrows Europe, send them to the new world -new market for manufactured goods and spreads population more evenly -only after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo did industrialization really begin to spread across Europe (1820- ) -opened continental trade Great Divergence -major gap developed between Europe and the rest of the world’s industrialization -ex. India and China’s manufacturing industries proportionally decreased where Europe took over -pre-1500,Asia was far ahead of Europe technologically -Europe wanted Asian products,Asia only wanted Europe’s gold and silver -industrialization allowed Europe to produce new goods in high demand globally -commerce explains why Britain industrialized first -more trade, more resources etc. -Britain was Europe’s largest colonial power, biggest market France was wealthiest in the west, Holland had the most efficient agriculture, but Britain surpassed them, why? -location -water transport is cheaper/ more efficient than continental -lots of rivers/ coastlines in England -tons of raw materials from it colonies, manufacture them in Britain -convenient location with lots of coal/ iron deposits -1700’s agricultural revolution; new crops, new techniques etc. -cash crops, durable/ cheap crops (potato) from the new world -feed more animals, beasts of burden, transportation etc. -seed drill, manure etc. -landlords had large scale farms to feed people in cities/ mines -these landlords could afford to invest in new technologies in the cities etc. HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII VII -formerly, farmers used to farm long plots of land for themselves and then there’d be a common land for all -enclosure system authorized by parliament (1750) -allowed landlords to claim these common lands and more efficiently farm them -decreased rural communities, increased cheap industrial labour in cities and increased markets Jan 16, 2013 Britain’s Advantages -access to internal and overseas expanding markets -water transport (ocean/ rivers) -raw materials -agricultural revolution -differences in labour force -available capital-national banking system Inventions -John Kay, 1733: flying Shuttle -double the speed in which cotton could be woven -James Hargreaves, 1760’s: spinning jenny -water frame, power loom, cotton gin (research more) -British cloth production soared as a result of all the inventions -steam engine -cotton and iron industries needed new ways to be powered -did not rely on water power to fuel factories -before this, most manufacturing was done in ‘cottage industries’ -home businesses -factory system overtook production in homes, workshops, cottage industries -increases the amount of work that can be done by unskilled workers -costs less to produce things, workers no longer have to be masters of their trade -labour becomes cheaper, easily replaceable, unskilled -leads to social changes INDUSTRIALIZATION II -transformations of industrialization were not only economic -rural to urban lifestyles, denser populations -for most of human history, population could only grow to the point that agriculture could support it -population growth despite people moving overseas -higher birth rates -even if families still owned a farm, not all the children could inherit and live off their own part, had to move into cities -pre-1800’s 1/5 children died before their 1st birthday HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII VIII -more surviving children meant their was a huge unskilled workforce growing up -lower death rates -increased workforce -famers that couldn’t compete with the new large-scale, monoculture farms moved into the urban workforce -large-scale farming made it possible to hire and fire workers when necessary, not always necessary to have lots of workers -arguable that the large farms meant famine was no longer lurking around the corner -new infrastructure -advances in sanitation/ nutrition -changes in work and working conditions Class Consciousness -industrial middle class and industrial working class -middle class employed, working class was employed -working class only sells labour, not skill -has no time to learn to produce a whole barrel, only one part of making barrels, so no choice to switch jobs, very specialized -artisans were skilled workers -initially resisted the transition into factory work -felt threatened by the rise of machinery and technology taking their positions -working class saw factory production as an opportunity -factory can produce products faster, more cheaply, in higher amounts, artisans cannot compete even if they produced better products -the same pattern occurred even before the rise of mechanization like in the Paris clothing industry for example -some artisans were forced into wage work like the working class instead of profiting from the sale of one good product -some artisans were educated etc. and set up guilds since the middle ages to compete with monopolizing factories Jan 21, 2013 THE MIDDLE CLASSES -artisans were the first to have a sense of class consciousness with common needs -a class for itself, with its own interests -upset at mechanization and industrial loads of production -middle class developed a stronger class consciousness than any other before it -very diverse group, many different experiences geographically/ politically/ economically -the bourgeois century, 19th century, the time when the middle classes were more influential than ever (Marxism) -bourgeois are members of the middle class -since so many were included, who was not in the middle class? (DowntonAbbey) HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII IX -upper class -middle class was often richer than the upper class (merchants) -upper class didn’t work -usually land owners, inheritance, royalty, gentry, nobility -estates usually produce their income -sit back on their huge estates, no work ethic, and just bring in cash from production on their land -often had to marry into middle class families to sustain their budgets -working class -laborers, factory workers etc. -middle class worked but didn’t get their hands dirty -lawyers, capitalists, merchants, factory owners, traders, educators etc. but still much broader -so how do we know who was middle class? -censuses (incomplete information) -studying wills left behind is much more effective but still guesswork -portraits, clothing etc. -the further south and east you go in Europe, the lower the levels of middle class -middle class didn’t like the upper class because they weren’t adding to the growth and prosperity of the country, no work ethic -protestant values of deserving what you work for, don’t waste a moment in idleness -bourgeoisie believed work was the way to get ahead, industriousness = success -workers are poor because they have a bad work ethic -workers pass on that message to their children -the way to get them to work harder is to ‘harass them with need’ -if they are on the verge of financial collapse, they will be motivated to work harder and sober -working class, are drunk, non-religious -allowed a culture of extreme mistreatment -salvation army offered working class aid/ charity (beds, food, shelter) if they listened to a religious values/ morals/ sobriety lecture -these groups called for temperance too -upper class did not consider charity important -middle class went to europe more often than working class -view itself as more religious, lived an upright life, rewarded for piety, modesty, and sobriety Middle Class Culture -slippers; middle class luxury -urban domestic servants; a status symbol, cost little -more servants you had, the higher you were on the social ladder -always feared falling out of their place in the middle class -upper class also had these in rural estates HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII X -books, music, instruments (pianos, harpsichords) -distinct approach to family -working class children were often away to bring extra income to the household, children were ‘little adults’ -middle class developed ‘childhood’, leisure time in the home life where values would be taught, education etc. -a room just for the children -women became known for domesticity, keeping the home/ family functioning properly -taught children values -so there were different roles for men, women, and children in the middle classes -upper class didn’t send their children to school; childhood wasn’t a time to be protected and refined -children were given private tutors etc. Jan 23, 2013 LIBERALISM -Congress of Vienna attempted to eliminate liberalism and nationalism -wanted to reestablish the aristocratic order -19th century liberalism couldn’t exist without the French Revolution and the middle class of industrialization -both established new class consciousnesses -21st century liberalism is different from 19th century definitions -classical liberalism (19th century) -contemporary (modern) -main difference is the scope of the idea of liberty -liberals value liberty -classically, liberty meant political and economic liberalism -today it means more civic liberty (social justice liberty with some regulation in economy, politics) -classical liberty means freedom from the state in economy -trade whatever you want, offer employees whatever wage you want etc. -free trade, no minimum wage, no regulations of the economic sphere 19th century liberalism included: -preservation of the ideals of the French Revolution and Enlightenment -purpose of society was to promote individual liberty -constitutions to promote/ protect these things -limit state power, limit the majority’s power over the minority -tyranny of the majority -free trade/ laissez-faire -should be a private affair, not a state one HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XI -minimum taxes on imports/ exports (limits state control of production, employment, spending) -liberals accepted much of the early concepts of the French revolution -reject much of what followed (thought policing, ideological absolutism, the terror, radicalism etc.) -French Revolution was great, but it missed some key points of protected liberty Benjamin Constant (1767-1830) -critical of Rousseau -absolute monarch is a form of tyranny -people need more liberty -Constant believed if you offer all your liberty to the majority to protect your liberty, the majority can become as tyrannical as an absolute ruler -political opponents become ‘enemies’to the general will -this is problematic because it demotes individual liberty -whether a person’s liberty is infringed upon by an absolutist ruler or by a majority who voted to infringe upon those liberties, individual liberty has not been protected -he also believed property alone renders a man capable of exercising his political rights -property enabled people to exercise their political rights -commerce and trade achieved a liberal society and protected it from the state or the majority -Napoleon’s wars violated liberty -commerce is better than war -free commerce fosters the most liberty for the most people -property and trade established ties between people where they become dependent on each other -if you rely on a social convention (trading partnership), you think twice about having them killed for disagreeing with the majority The Middle Class -valued order and property above else -owning things you could lose were vital to knowing what justice should be -the middle class was gaining wealth but had little political influence -felt owning property should be the center of political participation -the laws at the time were not serving their needs -constitutions and property rights would serve them better -had a strong class consciousness regarding their needs for more trade, lower wages etc. HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XII -wondered why an earl or duke deserved more political influence than people that would actually be effected by the laws like the middle class -middle class vs. upper class -only people with a stake in society, with something to lose from policy making, deserved a right to act in policy making -thus, only property owning, males deserved the right to vote and act in politics Adam Smith (1723-1790) -died around the time of the revolution -concerned with trade and mercantilism -European countries didn’t allow free trade between different countries -enjoyed a closed circuit of trade between countries and their overseas colonies -Smith believed free markets would offer a greater profit for the greater good -the government shouldn’t control trade with tariffs -some countries could produce products better for cheaper if we let them -natural law guides the economy -ideas from the Scottish Enlightenment -natural law of the market was the ‘invisible hand’ -supply/ demand/ production etc. Jan 28, 2013 LIBERALISM CONTINUED Adam Smith (1723-1790) Continued -‘The Wealth of Nations’(1776) -wrote in the age of enlightenment -system of natural liberty for the economy -does the economy work rationally according to natural law? can we observe this law? -human interference with the natural law will pervert it -the invisible hand is Smith’s natural law -invisible hand regulates supply, demand, innovation -reason can tell you how the economy works -Smith wanted free trade -hated tariffs -liberals supported him -allow foreign grain to be imported without taxation, can be produced/ bought at a cheaper price -tariffs forced people to spend money in a particular way HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XIII -took away their freedom to spend money/ property how they want -self interest is the way to achieve the common good -the baker doesn’t make bread because he wants to do a good dead and feed people, he bakes bread to sell, to make money, to feed himself and his family -thus he tries to sell the most bread, feeding more people, reducing price to keep people coming -everyone benefits -should be skeptical of any laws proposed by merchants, lawyers, middle class etc. -middle class, they’re interested in ruling out competition, passing laws to create a monopoly -certain groups of society benefit more than others by legally limiting the economy to benefit themselves John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) -can’t interfere with anyone else’s liberty unless it is to immediately protect your own -you can only coerce against someone unless the safety of others is at stake -you cannot coerce someone to benefit themselves, only when the safety of others is at stake -every individual is sovereign over his mind and body -unlike most liberals, he saw a role for social welfare to protect the rights of workers, women etc. -social justice liberalism NATIONALISM -the nation is a grouping with a right to sovereignty -but who are its members? what are they based on? has this changed today? Ernest Renan (1823-1892) -‘what is a nation’(1882) -nation is a collectivity but not necessarily defined as ancestral ties but a collectivity who has acted together and continue to want to act together -the nation is freely engaged in the community that constitutes it -the nation does not occur naturally, owes its existence to the continued allegiance of its people to ideals, constitutions, etc. -a.k.a civic nationalism -daily plebiscite Romanticism -intellectual movement against the enlightenment -Rousseau elevated passion and emotion over reason and intellect -to find out who people are, explore emotions and passions -the soul or the heart, not the head HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XIV -arose in post-Napoleonic states who wanted to counter the coldness, reason, and structure of the state -people aren’t just shaped by reason but also by the natural world around them -people are distinct, not universal -people are inherently different depending on where they come from and how they are raised (ethnic nationalism) Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) -conservative -French Revolution was ‘an insurrection against God’ -man cannot create a constitution -what is ‘man’? he’d heard of Frenchmen, Italians, Russians, Persians but no one is a universal ‘man’ -the enlightenment and French Revolution were centered around universality and liberty -inclusiveness Johanne Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) -in between civic and romantic -universal humanity is only possible through distinctive, peoples -people are shaped by their environment and ancestry -nations aren’t automatically entitled to sovereignty but they should have a consciousness of their differences from other nations -even if those people overlap states -he knew the Germans best -many different states but closely related -even if they had many allegiances, they were more related to other Germans than Italians etc. -felt Germans should cultivate their own culture, not depend on education of the french -Volsgeist -national spirit/ consciousness -to make that spirit authentic, it had to develop from and draw inspiration form the folk people, not cosmopolitans speaking French -non-chauvinistic -all these peoples existed, but none were better than the other -they should just all cultivate their own unique national character -collected folk songs across the Baltic region (Estonia etc.) Johann Gottieb Fichte (1762-1814) -‘Addresses to the German Nation’(1808) -education will make the Germans aware of their nationality -national education, would reveal an innate German nationalism -father country is Germany -Germans had a genius and originality not present in other parts of the world -if they could unite, they’d pursue that genius and originality -antisemitism -jews are fundamentally different from the organic German community HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XV -Jewish ideas are not German ideas -Germans are a forest people, evolved in the forest -jews are a desert people, they have flat feet -combines romantic nationalism and science Jan 30, 2013 Ernst MoritzArndt (1769-1860) -Prussians,Austrians, Bavarians etc. should be one -jews should not -the french were ‘refined jews’ -jews with culture that still act like jews NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM -liberals want a check on monarchical power -threat to ruling entities of the Austro-Hungarian empire, German states, etc. -Austrian forces put down most nationalist movements in Europe (Italy etc.) 1848 Revolutions -first in France to establish the second Republic (1848-1852) -there had been a series of bad harvests -discontent among peasants, unable to afford food -40% of the workforce was unemployed -at the same time the king started as liberal (Bourgeois King), but later he became more authoritarian -on George Washington’s birthday (democracy/ liberty) reformers held a banquet that is quashed by the government -a brawl breaks out and the revolution begins -national guard turns against the government, takes the side of the reformers -once the 2nd republic was established, people’s views began to diverge -in Vienna, the same people who drove the Congress of Vienna are still in power -students -first uncensored newspaper was issued in 1848 depicting anything the people wanted -springtime of the peoples -Prague, Pan-Slavic Congress (1848) -Prussia; Frederick William IV (1840-1861) -Frankfurt Parliament (1848) was attempt to unite the German peoples in a German nation-state, ignoring theAustrian emperor, Saxon king etc. -met at st. Paul’s Cathedral, flying the flags of Germany -debated whether the non German speaking parts of Prussia andAustria should be united HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XVI -decided no, language is a defining factor in German heritage -jews would be included, they’d been in Germany a long time, spoke the language, deserved civil rights -who should lead the new nation? -a republic? no it should be a constitutional monarchy awarded to one of the German kings -if they say to the king of Prussia, yes your power is restricted, but all the power of the old kings of Germany was gone, and you get to be king of a unified Germany -he accepted initially having seen the king of France etc. kicked out -Germans knew they could kick him out but they didn’t want to -however, as the 1848 revolution started to dwindle, due to Russian/Austrian army support against the reformers -king of Prussia figured he shouldn’t have to accept the crown from the consent of the people -felt the conservatives would be victorious -reformers were fighting a war against God -sent troops into Frankfurt to crush and disperse the Frankfurt parliament -so national unity in Germany, the Slavic kingdoms, and Italy looked good but seemed to be failing -there weren’t enough common interests among the workers, merchants, middle class, etc. to unify the states -also at the Frankfurt Parliament, there was discussion of a small German solution and a large German solution -small Germany would exclude GermanAustria -large Germany would include it -in 1871, the parliament decided on small Germany Feb 4, 2013 -Read text for the national Italian unification movement UNIFICATION OF GERMANY -Frankfurt Parliament, liberal nationalists wanted to unify germany under a constitution -large or small Germany? (includeAustria both German speaking and not) -small German solution figuredAustria was just a mixed up mess, only incorporate the German speaking parts -do we really want to get caught up in the linguistic/ cultural problems ofAustria -large German solution argued that a constitutional nation should include the whole nation -parliament mostly wanted a large Germany -Austria made it clear that it would not be splitting anything up HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XVII -parliament ruled that they would set up Germany withoutAustria for the time being, if Austria wanted, they could join later -a settlement based on small Germany with a potential for large Germany From Frankfurt Parliament to German Empire -Prussia used to be split up, a large German state with massive economic/ industrial power -took control of the customs union, Zollverein -a union of free trade among member states -fostered industrialization in all German states butAustria -kingdom of Hungary was the eastern end of theAustro-Hungarian Empire,Austria the west -1850’s, Prussia was in political deadlock, legislature brought the business of state to a standstill -there was a new king, Wilhelm I of Prussia (r. 1861-1888), Emperor of Germany (1871- 1888) -the new king wanted to strengthen the military with taxes for military reform/ rail infrastructure -liberals were opposed to authoritarian militarism -did everything they could to block the king’s endeavors to stop the expansion of royal authority -king calls on a noble for Prime Minister to break the political deadlock, Otto von Bismarck -an aristocrat -to ensure his conservative, aristocratic system of rule, he had to connect it to nationalism -split nationalism from liberalism -movement for nationalism was popular -liberal nationalism undermined royal power -Bismarck figured Germans would look to Prussia for leadership because its powerful, not because its liberal -had to show how powerful Prussia was by force -Bismarck violated the constitution and ignored parliament -had the support of the king, aristocracy, and the army -he said to parliament, you and what army? you can vote all you want but it means nothing -passed the king’s military reform legislation -but if he values Prussian interests over all other German ones, he’ll annoyAustria -fought a war with Denmark over two small provinces to present Prussia as the great defender of Germany (1864) -convinced Austria to join the war too by making them want to look influential in Germany like Prussia HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XVIII -after defeating Denmark, Bismarck set up a complicated system where they’d be jointly ruled by Prussia andAustria even though her knew it wouldn’t work out because he wanted to instigate future conflicts withAustria -if Austria attacks, Prussia looks like the glorious defender of Germany -Austria declares war (1866) on Prussia with double the population and size -Prussia destroysAustria in 7 weeks with modern weapons, mobile armies, and the industrial railroad -Bismarck expelledAustria from the German confederation, and anyAustrian allies -Germany looks like the defender of a unified Germany -North German Confederation established, excludingAustria and a few other to the south (1866- 1871) -had a parliament with universal male suffrage that pleased liberals -but parliament had no authority over the chancellor who was appointed by the king and his cabinet -parliament had limited control over military etc. -Bismarck made sure the parliament was thee to look pretty while Germany was actually authoritarian -the next common enemy to Germany they could exploit was France -French were upset because the new king of Spain was a cousin of the Prussian monarchy -Bismarck made it look like the Prussian king had insulted the French ambassador in a tampered telegram -France declares war in the Franco-Prussian war (1870-1871) -North Germany was rallied to the cause and defeated the French -led to the overthrow of the 3rd French empire -Bismarck called all the German kings to Versailles, where the German empire is made official in the hall of mirrors -in France, not Germany -Bismarck proclaims a unified German empire with the king of Prussia as Emperor -Utopian Socialism Feb 6, 2013 SOCIALISM HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XIX Utopian Socialism -thinkers looked at the ideology of liberalism, capitalism, laissez-faire, poverty -typical thinking involved liberty, less government = better society -socialists said no, cooperation is better -focus on social reform in addition to traditional political and economic reform -Marx named the socialists before himself utopian socialists because they seemed impractical Charles Fourier (1772-1838) Robert Owen (1771-1858) -British cotton manufacture -natural goodness is revealed if they are in a cooperative environment instead of a competitive, capitalist one -opposite ofAdam Smith -humans are naturally good if put in the right situation -established a socialist town in a former squalid factory town in Scotland -turned the town into a flourishing community (see Brophy text) -businesses work better when owners treat their employees as well as their machines -tried to set up a similar community in Indiana, USA Louis Blanc (1813-1882) -social problems could be solved through government influence -competition is the main source of societal problems -workshops should be state funded, but owned and operated by the workers -cut out the middle class entirely Flora Tristan (1803-1844) -socialism and feminism -absolute equality, gender equality was the only way to make society function properly -to free the working class completely Karl Marx (1818-1883) -Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) with Friedrich Engels -Marx came from a middle class German family -formerly jewish, father had converted to protestantism -Marx was an atheist journalist -studied philosophy of Hegel -became more popular as a radical journalist, had to leave the scientific community -1842, Marx and his wife began a lifelong exile from Germany because of his radicalism -went to Paris where he became better acquainted with socialist literature like the ones above -Prussians pressured the French government to expel him from France -settled again in Brussels where he developed the materialist conception of history -legal, social, political structures come from the material provisions in life -relations are based on what you produce, how you produce it, for whom -these create political, national, legal etc. consciousnesses -class interests HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XX -you don’t have ideas that structure who you are, its your interests in your place in the system of production that defines who you are -ideas don’t shape who you are, who you are shapes ideas/ transformations/ revolutions -being a catholic, or a protestant, or an artist, or a factory owner is secondary, these are defined by you material relations -history is the history of class struggles -1843, Marx begins to call himself a communist -you can understand society through class consciousnesses -history is not the history of ideas/ religion/ etc. but the relations between classes -humanity can cooperate to master nature and social realities instead of being mastered by it -philosophers have explained the world, the point is to change it -enlightenment thinking -alienation is a fundamental problem in industrial society -the division of labour and private property made men slaves to a social system of production -you are bound to the logic of the system -idea of what you’d do with your life if money wasn’t an issue -you’re forced to sell your labour to produce for someone else -alienation is dehumanizing, but necessary to the liberation of mankind -men had to realize they could be enslaved before seeking true liberty -Marx was a determinist, if you study history well enough, you can predict what will come next -what’s different between Marx and utopian thinkers is utopian thinkers lacked a political consciousness among the working class -communism is a specific vision of history leading to a social society -socialism is a democratic political process Feb 11, 2013 DARWINISM AND SOCIAL DARWINISM -Marx and Darwin were publishing work in the same year -Marx believed material reality was the driving force behind human history -like Marx, Darwin believed there were impersonal self-directed material driving forces -laws of nature and society operate mechanically, they can be understood -they are not directed by some intelligence -the enlightenment taught that everything had a single origin HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XXI -strongly influenced Darwin -Comte developed the idea of “positivism” -human progress is inevitable and linear -brings improvements over time -pre-WWI ideology (before all the innovations in technology were used for destruction instead of progress) -Erasmus Darwin (1794-1796) -postulated the basics of evolution theory -positivist theory -the great first cause (God/ creator) indued the ancestors of animals the power to attain new traits -Charles Darwin’s theory differs however because it wasn’t entirely positivist, mutation can improve/ digress -for Marx, history has a goal, class struggle leads to the end of history, classless society -Darwin’s history doesn’t have a goal, it doesn’t have an ends that history is leading to -no perfect human being produced over time, all coincidence -Darwin studied to be a priest -1831, he spent time on a ship in SouthAmerica -began to question his faith -never became and atheist, became an agnostic at the end of his life -always believed there was a central cause -given long periods of time, natural laws can move mountains, seas etc. -explains phenomena better than miracles -do species change over time and if so how? -pre-Darwin, species were stable, if you have a horse, it was created as a horse -Darwin doubted the stability of species by noticing how birds and reptiles were distributed in the Galapagos -species on the islands were different from their mainland cousins, and yet so similar -his theory became known as descent from a common ancestor (evolution) -he thought there had to be a cause for modifications though -he knew there was selection (animal/ plant breeders could artificially select breeds) -while reading Malthus, he figured nature could do this too -population numbers always outstrip resources leading to competition -competing offspring survive/ die depending on their traits that are favorable for their time/ geography -when the origin of species was published, most people accepted the idea of evolution in the academic world -easy to do because of the climate of positivism -in Britain it became a framework to apply to other areas of life -people overwhelmingly rejected his mechanism for evolution -rejected natural selection -maybe it plays a role but it is inadequate, there has to be another source HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XXII -LeMark believed changes due to use and disuse could be inherited -ex. if you cut off a lizards tail, its offspring might not have a tail -ex. giraffes -believed evolution happens, but not through natural selection alone Feb 13, 2013 SOCIAL DARWINISM CONTINUED -Darwin wasn’t talking about the ultimate origins of life on earth, instead he discusses what happens after things have been created -not necessarily against Christian views -an alternate narrative for Christianity -offered not only a way to understand nature, but also a way to explore political and social agendas -social darwinism was not a 19th century term -rose in the 1930’s to apply his theories to understand differences among human populations Herbert Spenser (1820-1903) -evolution was part of an overall upward progress -both for species and humans -coined the phrase “survival of the fittest” which was later incorporated into Darwin’s work -species are in competition for survival -nations are also in competition for resources with each other -races etc. are in competition for survival -organic entities in competition -progress comes from struggle for survival as the fit advanced while the weak declined -main principal since the Congress of Vienna was the Balance of Power -anything you don’t control is something your rivals will -zero sum game -pseudo-scientific racism -defining peoples as racially ‘other’ -placeable scientifically in a hierarchy where there are fundamental, racial, differences -racial superiority -it’d be better for humanity if we eliminated the ‘least evolved’savages -in Germany in particular, there was the idea that each people had its place in a nation -jewish place in German society or lack thereof New imperialism (late 19th century) -imperial ventures is theoretically economic -industrial powers needed new markets and new resources HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XXIII -a greater supply of people to buy manufactured products -more natural resources to produce for the expanding market -Africa andAsia were prime for harvest -Lenin argues that imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism (1917) -imperialism allows European powers to delay worker’s revolutions -competition for markets would need military protection -imperial states would build up military to protect their interests -Marx predicted that the Bourgeoise would continue to expand to a global market -always produce more than you need at that moment, capital -imperialism might jumpstart the movement towards a classless society -France saw imperialism as a way to rebuild moral and French greatness after losing territories from Prussia -new imperialism is distinguished from 16th century portuguese/ spanish imperialism -new imperialism had a far greater extension -1800, Europeans occupied 35% of the world -1878, up to 67% -1914, 84% -England, France, Portugal felt they had a duty to spread civilization/ Christianity to the underdeveloped/ savages -spread the virtues of European-ness -cleanliness, religion, etc. Tool of Conquest -why did imperialism have when it did? -transportation technology -railroads, iron steamships etc. -travel further and at a cheaper price -railroads from Cairo to Cape Town -weapons were more advanced -communications like the telegram -1880’s, one year to send a letter from India to Britain -hours by telegram -Winston Churchill saw the effectiveness of the first machine guns in Sudan -disease/ medication -by 1830, French had developed a treatment against malaria -allowed deeper penetration intoAfrica impossible before Scramble for Africa -1869, Suez Canal opened HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII XXIV -Egypt and its presence on the Red Sea had always interested France and Britain as a bridge to Asia -European bankers financed the construction, telegrams, railroads -Egyptian government has a financial crisis in 1865 -Britain offers support -1882, eventually launches a fallout conquest -left some local leaders in power but essentially took total control -French didn’t mind because Britain agreed to go along with French dominance over Tunisia and Algeria -you don’t bother us we don’t bother you in NorthAfrica -colonies start to spread south -1884-85, Bismarck calls the Berlin Conference to formalize and agreement on who gets what in Africa -can’t just say Tanzania is mine, you had to actually have people on the ground settling the area -Liberia was founded by former American slaves -Ethiopia was the only African state able to fend off European invaders -Emperor Menelik II defeated the Italian invaders -these were the onlyAfrican territories free from European domination -European domination was brutal inAfrica -King Leopold of Belgium ruled the Belgian Congo (Congo free state), a personal territory of the King of Belgium, only in 1908 did it become a Belgian territory -rubber trade was huge in the congo -many people had their hands cut off because rubber companies cut off the hands of workers suspected of stealing, rebelling, etc. and sent the hands back to Belgium to prove to the king that they were laying down the law Second Boer War (1899-1902) -conflicts among European territories in the colonies as Lenin discussed -British were increasingly concerned with the German presence in southwestAfrica -Germans led a brutal takeover in southwestAfrica and Brits feared they’d continue on to South Africa -British felt they should eliminate the Belgian republics in the north -figured it’d be an easy takeover, wanted the rich gold mines -brought 300, 000 soldiers from Britain and India -India was largely run by a private company, British East India Company -1857, Indian Revolt leads to direct British rule in India -India is now an official colony -Britain is also concerned with opium trade in China -leads to the Opium Wars -at the same time, Russia is pushing its empire south to centralAsia with the ultimate goal of
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