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Barbara Todd

War of 1812 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Anglo-American War of 1812 to 1815. For the Franco-Russian conflict, see French invasion of Russia. For other uses of this term, see War of 1812 (disambiguation). War of 1812 Clockwise from top: damage to the U.S. Capitol after the Burning of Washington; the mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on Canadian militia at the battle of Queenston Heights; USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere; the death of Tecumseh in 1813 ends the Indian threat to the American Midwest; Andrew Jackson destroys the British assault on New Orleans. Date June 18, 1812 – February 18, 1815 (2 years and 8 months) Locatio Eastern and Central North America, Atlantic n and Pacific Result Status quo ante bellum with no boundary changes; • Defeat of Tecumseh's Indian Confederation • Ended support for military annexation of Canada by US. Belligerents U.S. and Allies British Empire and Allies • United States • British Empire • United Kingdom of • Choctaw • Cherokee Great Britain and Ireland • Creek allies • British Canada • Shawnee • Creek Red Sticks • Ojibway • Chickamauga • Fox • Iroquois • Miami • Mingo • Ottawa • Kickapoo • Delaware (Lenape) • Mascouten • Potawatomi • Sauk • Wyandot Commanders and leaders James Madison Lord Liverpool • Sir George Prévost • Henry Dearborn • Sir Isaac Brock † • Jacob Brown • Gordon Drummond • Winfield Scott • Tecumseh † • Andrew Jackson • William Henry Harrison • William Hull • Zebulon Pike † Strength British Empire United States •Regular Army: •British Army: — 7,000 (at start of war); — 5,200 (at start of war); — 35,800 (at war's end) — 48,160 (at war's end) •Prov. regulars: 10,000 •Rangers: 3,049 •Provincial Militia: 4,000 •Militia: 458,463 * •United States Navy, •Royal Navy and U.S. Marines, and Royal Marines: Revenue Cutter Service — Ships of the line: 11 — Frigates: 34 (at start of war): — Frigates: 6 — Other vessels: 52 — Other vessels: 14 •Provincial Marine ‡ : — Ships: 9 (at start of war) Native allies: — 10,000 [2] Native allies: — 125 Choctaw, — (unknown others) [1] Casualties and losses * 2,260 killed in action. * 1,600 killed in action. • 4,505 wounded. • 3,679 wounded. • 15,000 (est.) died from • 3,321 died from disease. all causes.[a] * * Some militias operated in only their own regions. • † Killed in action • ‡ A locally raised coastal protection and seminaval force on the Great Lakes. [show] • v t e St. Lawrenc e/Lake Champl ain frontier [show] • v t e Niagara campaig ns [show] • v t e Detroit frontier [show] • v t e Chesap eake campaig n [show] • v t e America n South [show] • v t e Naval campaig ns of the War of 1812 The War of 1812 (referred to as the "Second War of Independence" by some US historians) was a 32-month military conflict between the United States on one side, and on the other Great Britain, its colonies and its Indian allies in North America. The outcome resolved many issues which remained from the American War of Independence, but involved no boundary changes. The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's continuing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American interest in annexing Canada. [3] The war was fought in three principal theatres. Firstly, at sea, warships and privateers of both sides attacked each other's merchant ships, while the British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the U.S. and mounted large-scale raids in the later stages of the war. Secondly, both land and naval battles were fought on the American–Canadian frontier, which ran along the Great Lakes, the Saint Lawrence River and the northern end of Lake Champlain. Thirdly, the American South and Gulf Coast also saw major land battles in which the American forces defeated Britain's Indian allies and a British invasion force at New Orleans. Some invasions or counter strikes were unsuccessful, while others successfully attacked enemy objectives and took possession of opposition territory. At the end of the war both sides signed the Treaty of Ghent, and all parties returned occupied land to its pre war owner. With the majority of its army and naval forces tied down in Europe fighting the Napoleonic Wars until 1814, the British at first used a defensive strategy, repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada. The Americans gained control over Lake Erie in 1813, seized parts of western Ontario, and ended the prospect of an Indian confederacy and an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship. In September 1814, a British force invaded and occupied eastern Maine. This territory, along with Michigan, part of upper New York, Illinois and Wisconsin, were taken by the British and held with their Indian allies for the duration of the war. In the Southwest, General Andrew Jackson destroyed the military strength of the Creek nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 on April 6, the British adopted a more aggressive strategy, sending in three large invasion armies. The British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814 allowed them to capture and burn Washington, D.C. American victories in September 1814 repulsed the British invasions in New York and Baltimore; the British suffered a major defeat at New Orleans in January 1815. In the United States, victories at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815 and in the Battle of Baltimore of 1814 (which inspired the lyrics of the American national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner") produced a sense of euphoria over a "second war of independence" against Britain. [4]Peace brought an "Era of Good Feelings" to the U.S. in which partisan animosity nearly vanished. Canada also emerged from the war with a heightened sense of national feeling and solidarity with the British Empire, as it celebrated its defeat of multiple invasions. Battles such as the Battle of Queenston Heights and the Battle of Crysler's Farm became iconic for English-speaking Canadians, while battles such as the Battle of Chateauguay became memorable for French-speaking Canadians. In Canada, especially Ontario, memory of the war retains national significance, as the invasions were largely perceived by Canadians as an annexation attempt by the United States. In Canada, numerous ceremonies took place in 2012 to commemorate the war, offer historical lessons and celebrate 200 years of peace between Canada and the United States.[5]The war is scarcely remembered in Britain today, as it regarded the conflict as a sideshow to the much larger Napoleonic Wars raging in Europe. As such it welcomed an era of peaceful relations and trade with the United States. Contents [hide] 1 Reasons for the war 1.1 Honour and the second war of independence 1.2 Trade with France 1.3 Impressment 1.4 British support for American Indian raids 1.5 American expansionism 1.6 U.S. political conflict 2 Declaration of war 3 Course of the war 4 Theatres of war 4.1 Atlantic theatre 4.1.1 Single-ship actions 4.1.2 Privateering 4.1.3 Blockade 4.1.4 Freeing and Recruiting slaves 4.1.5 Occupation of Maine 4.1.6 Chesapeake campaign and "The Star-Spangled Banner" 4.2 Great Lakes and Western Territories 4.2.1 Invasions of Upper and Lower Canada, 1812 4.2.2 American Northwest, 1813 4.2.3 Niagara frontier, 1813 4.2.4 St. Lawrence and Lower Canada, 1813 4.2.5 Niagara and Plattsburgh Campaigns, 1814 4.2.6 American West, 1813–14 4.3 Southern theatre 4.3.1 Creek War 4.3.2 Gulf Coast 4.3.3 Postwar fighting 5 The Treaty of Ghent 5.1 Factors leading to the peace negotiations 5.2 Negotiations and peace 6 Losses and compensation 7 Memory and historiography 7.1 Popular views 7.2 Canadian 7.3 American 7.4 Historians' views 7.4.1 Indians as losers 8 Long-term consequences 8.1 United States 8.2 British North America (Canada) 8.3 Indigenous nations 8.4 Bermuda 8.5 Britain 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources 13 Further reading 13.1 Primary sources 14 External links Reasons for the war Main article: Origins of the War of 1812 Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the United States declaration of war [6] Honour and the second war of independence As Risjord (1961) notes, an unstated but powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults (including the Chesapeake affair).[7] Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; [Andrew] Jackson, who still bore scars from the first war of independence held that view with special conviction. The approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but was it also about vindication of American identity".[8][9] Trade with France In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via a series of Orders in Council to impede American trade with France, with which Britain was at war. The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law[10] The British wanted to reduce American trade with France, regardless of its theoretical right as a neutral. As historian Reginald Horsman explains, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy". [11] The American merchant marine had come close to doubling between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U.S. cotton and 50% of other U.S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of the growing mercantile and commercial competition. [12]The United States' view was that Britain's restrictions violated its right to trade with others. Impressment Press gang: oil painting by Luke Clennell During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 175 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.[13]While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shipping and privateers for a small pool of experienced sailors and turned to impressment when it could not operate ships with volunteers alone. Britain did not recognize the right of a British subject to relinquish his status as a British subject, emigrate and transfer his national allegiance as a naturalized citizen to any other country. Thus while the United States recognized British-born sailors on American ships as Americans, Britain did not. It was estimated that there were 11,000 naturalized sailors on United States ships in 1805. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin stated that 9,000 were born in Britain[14]The Royal Navy went after them by intercepting and searching U.S. merchant ships for deserters. Impressment actions such as the Leander Affair and the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair outraged Americans, because they infringed on national sovereignty and denied America's ability to naturalize foreigners.[15]Moreover, a great number of British sailors serving as naturalized Americans on U.S. ships were Irish. An investigation by Captain Isaac Chauncey in 1808 found that 58% of the sailors based in New York City were either naturalized citizens or recent immigrants, the majority of foreign sailors (134 of 150) being from Britain. Moreover, eighty of the 134 British sailors were Iris[16] The United States believed that British deserters had a right to become United States citizens. Britain did not recognize naturalized United States citizenship, so in addition to recovering deserters, it considered United States citizens born British liable for impressment. Aggravating the situation was the widespread use of forged identity or protection papers by sailors. This made it difficult for the Royal Navy to distinguish Americans from non-Americans and led it to impress some Americans who had never been British. (Some gained freedom on appeal.) [17]American anger at impressment grew when British frigates were stationed just outside U.S. harbours in view of U.S. shores and searched ships for contraband and impressed men while in U.S. territorial waters.[18]"Free trade and sailors' rights" was a rallying cry for the United States throughout the conflict. British support for American Indian raids Origins of HYPERLINK "http://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Origin s_of_the_War_of _1812" Origins of the War of 1812 Chesapeake–Leopard Affair Orders in Council (1807) Embargo Act of 1807 Non-Intercourse Act (1809) Macon's Bill Number 2 Tecumseh's War Henry letters War Hawks Rule of 1756 Monroe–Pinkney Treaty Little Belt Affair The Northwest Territory, comprising the modern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, was the battleground for conflict between the Indian Nations and the United States. [19]The British Empire had ceded the area to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in 1783, both sides ignoring the fact that the land was already inhabited by various Indian nations. These included the Miami, Winnebago, Shawnee, Fox, Sauk, Kickapoo, Delaware and Wyandot. Some warriors, who had left their nations of origin, followed Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet and the brother of Tecumseh. Tenskwatawa had a vision of purifying his society by expelling the "children of the Evil Spirit": the American settler[20] Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh formed a confederation of numerous tribes to block American expansion. The British saw the Indian nations as valuable allies and a buffer to its Canadian colonies and provided arms. Attacks on American settlers in the Northwest further aggravated tensions between Britain and the United States. [21]The confederation's raids and existence hindered American expansion into rich farmlands in the Northwest Territory. [22]Pratt writes: "There is ample proof that the British authorities did all in their power to hold or win the allegiance of the Indians of the Northwest with the expectation of using them as allies in the event of war. Indian allegiance could be held only by gifts, and to an Indi
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