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Erin Black

LECTURE 1 – The New South and the Far West 1. The New South - slavery no longer exists and the crop economy crashed - blacks provide much of the labor force but they do so under other terms now - the civil war wiped much of the South’s capital; including the larger cotton markets Industrializing Efforts - wanted to invest in industrialization in the south and lure businesses - those who did envision industrialization did so under the influence and modeled based off of North industry - Henry Grady: one of the southerners who envisioned this, owned the largest newspaper at the time called Atlanta Constitution, used this to go head to head with northern industry - rail roads started to increase between 1870s-80s - textile industry began to shift southward because raw material was closer in the south and cheap labor was available through African Americans - iron and steel industries in south - industrialization hard to spread because of Northern influence; cheap labour by blacks stands in the way of the need for technological innovation; there is discouraged south immigration which results in preventing the south from inquring skilled workers - a lot of southerners just wanted to keep growing cotton because that is what they had been doing for as long as they can remember Land, Tenancy and Sharecropping - 1880s  20% of African Americans actually owned land - Sharecropping: land owner provides the land and the tools while the sharecropper (laborer) works on the land and at the end the two will split the crop; land owners didn’t actually divide this 50/50; this system has advantages for both blacks and whites: whites are ensured that blacks will work hard because it is in their interest to do so - By 1880 half of all rural blacks worked in the sharecropping business - CROP LIEN ECONOMY: farmers, mostly blacks who needed credit but who did not have land that could serve as collateral; credit is extended in exchange for the farmer to give the creditor a loan on farmers crop; the loan will be paid off theoretically by the crop that is being grown. PROBLEM: the weather was sometimes not good enough and there were declining market prices for cotton; the crop didn’t produce enough to pay the debt in full; creditors force them to use the land that they would feed their family with to grow cotton instead; former slaves are becoming under the control of land owners again; economically bound to someone else; leads to the Jim Crow South The Jim Crow South - controlling the behaviour of freed blacks; under slavery we can control the behaviour of blacks and interactions but without slavery we need segregation - it becomes sponsored; legal and universal (everything is segregated) - blacks and whites couldn’t even swear on the same bible in the court of law - the Supreme Court helps make segregation the norm; they ruled that while an amendment might have outlawed discrimination by institutions it didn’t outlaw who individuals discriminate - Plessy V Ferguson: black male who sat in a car that was designated for whites and was removed, fined and sued. This came up with separate but equal - SEPARATE BUT EQUAL: there can be a separate school for blacks and whites, but they need to be equally funded, have the same number of qualified teachers; this does not happen in practice; black schools are funded by black communities; not as qualified teachers or good textbooks. - blacks denied am. 15: man cannot be denied vote regardless of race  to be able to vote, you had to pay a tax which most whites could afford but blacks couldn’t as well as a literacy test and blacks would be given harder things to read 2. The Beginnings of the Civil Rights Struggle - responses to segregation; boycott, court systems, wasn’t big at this time because many blacks believed that segregated facilities are better; also because of fear of what would happen through social movements - Ida Wells: wanted to get legislation passed to stop the lynchings; irony of the system of segregation th - Booker T Washington: born a slave; after 13 am. He worked his way through school and in 1881 he founded the Tuskegee Insitute which became a vocational (trade) and later college schools for blacks; Protesting wouldn’t accomplish anything, it wasn’t worth it to be deliberately go to place where in the law it says that blacks weren’t allowed so it was not worth it to protest - W.E.B Du Bois: had not been born into slavery; born in the north; spent time in the south and learned about the poverty going on there; first black man to have PhD from Harvard; founder of NAACP (national association for the advancement of colored people) 3. Filling in the Trans- Mississippi West - lots of migrations taking place - majoring of migration westbound are Americans hoping to get land that they could own - the availability of free land opened up the passed of the Homestead Act in 1862 ; granted male citizens over the age of 21 160 acres of free land if the settle promised to live on that land over a period of 5 years and cultivate it and after this period it would be theirs; Economic Development 3 Key industries that sustain Wests Economy 1. Mining  gold found in Cali, precious metals; ore; ordered US army troops to protectr the ladn from hostile Indians and others who were looking to purchase territory but nothing going to stop the profit 2. The Cattle Kingdom  romantic era of the cowboy; cattle ranchers raised cows; free range- cows able to go where they pleased until fenced so they wouldn’t get stolen 3. Commercial Farming  cash crop changes to wheat; thousands of acres of wheat possible because it was easy to take care of; this was all at the expense of the Aboriginals who owned all this land in the first place 4. How the West Has “Won” - Roosevelt showed little remorse about the Aboriginals “getting in the way” - Heroes were white, Aboriginals viewed as villains Romanticizing the West “Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show - Had panned for gold at one point - Had made a name for himself by hunting buffalo - Featured in more than 200 dime novels - Natural born showman who capitalized on hi image to form a touring wild west company - Circus, theatre - Native Americasn took part in the re-enactment of custer’s last stand because many saw it as prideful that they were able to beat custer’s troops and others saw - Message: victory meant nothing because they were going to end up being beaten anyways Reservation Policy (Kill the Indian, Save the Man) - belief that there was nothing redeeming at all of the native life so it is important to strip that away and you might be able to save the man inside - goal: teach them to be self-sufficient farmers - native peoples are gathered on reservations but after a while a bill is passed to assimilate the natives - Policy of Assimilation : DAWES SEVERALITY ACT 1887: get them to abandon their former lives; head of family would not own title of land unless they had stayed on it for 25 years; goal is to get natives to give up their way of life; native man have their hair forcibly cut; native religious and other cultural ceremonies were broken up; native tradition were outlawed; policy of peace because the goal was to bring civilization to people who had not experienced it Realities of Natives: US relations - This was not peaceful reality - Chief Joseph tried to flee to Canada and within 40 miles of the border they were captured and he surrendered - This policy was used over and over again until they willingly gave up their land; not all of them gave up - Sitting Bull and some of his people fled to Canada and made it Alberta but a lot of them went back home because it was too cold for them; ultimately he is captured and stuck on his reservation Wounded Knee: Symbolizing the Passing of the Frontier - deaf native was not able to hear the command to stop the ghost dance and when the solider went to grab the gun the gun fired and shot the solider and the army opened fire - native people became dependant on federal assistance - land continued to be lost and by 1910 hundred of thousands of people who had their distinct culture had been transformed into a minority group LECTURE 2: The Making of Modern America: Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization 1. Industrialization and the rise of big business - nation we know starts to take shape; technology, unions, urban nations - after the civil war, America is still wealthy but still rural - 1900’s the US is one of the wealthiest countries in the world, over Britain - Industrialization is the product of development and has been on going in the US; it is the creation of large factories, spread of manufacturing and wide spread of a labor system; the development of huge companies and what becomes cooperation; results: the importance of the railroad developmeny epically after the transcontinental connections are made on railroad lines; helps the economy by allowing trading to expand - Technological innovation: electricity, factories can now pop up anywhere because they can connect to electricity rather than near water for steam power - VERTICAL INTEGRATION: Carnegie Steel: opened his first steal plant in 1872 and in its early years they were turning out a lot of steal but they grew very rapidly; he said that the own formula for success was cut to prices and watch costs and profits would take care of themselves; what he practiced was what we now call vertical integration; all aspects under his control; he owns the company that does everything (mines, shipping, etc) System of organization where a single person owns all from start to finished product - HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION: standard oil; (Rockefeller) Controls 9/10 of buying out his competition and consolidating to his standards; a system whereby competing companies of the same industry combines and is bought out; once horizontally integrated, he vertically integrates, a corporation is created; ensures profits and avoids competition; leads to violation of trust and Sherman Anti-Trust Act (people believed that the government shouldn’t be getting involved in the market) 2. The Rise of Organized Labor - industrial workers loosing ground; more jobs but less wages and ridiculous hours; advance in machinery means replacing skilled works with non skilled workers because they were able to be paid less; but skilled workers get forced to get smaller wages - labor unions being formed - First truly national Union in the US: - KNIGHTS OF LABOR: started as a secret society but ended up as a national union, the knights are for equal opportunity; ccept not just skilled members but producers; women and blacks also accepted; wanted a 8 hour working day (rather than 12-14) end to child labor, end conflict labor, equal pay for men and women doing the same work (advocated for this), public ownership of communications, transportation, banking, argued for socialism - American Federation of Labour: skilled male white workers; women not allowed (they saw them as powerful because they undercut), black membership = union dues, worked their way around letting blacks in; members paid in; unemployment insurance; 1/3 population, Samuel Gompers wanted to reform capital system as long as workers get fair share and treatment - Industrial Workers of the World  socialist movement, people who were part of this believed that the economy could be better run and distributed more fairly if the people owned the major enterprises; organize unskilled workers; paid attention to immigrants; - Women’s Trade Union League  skilled trade women but they were shut out; people argued women had no place in AFL because they were too emotional; founded in 1903; effort to organize women into trade unions; accepted all women LECTURE 3: Empire Abroad; Progressivism at Home Crisis of the 1890s: PEOPLE’S PARTY: - political populism (reforming movement) - meet in the midst of a nation that is ruined and people are demoralized - power is in the hands of the capitalists; founded because they noticed that political parties didn’t seem to be doing anything at all to mitigate the problems that America was beginning to face - they weren’t wrong: the federal government didn’t do anything about it and didn’t want to face problems (classical liberalism) - Populists believed the problem had to change because their income was declining because what they sell is declining in price because of industrialization and consumer prices are sold - System seemed to work to the wealthy and only the wealthy and populists tried to make it work only for the majority instead - Demanding federal government to give - Called for graduated income tax (higher income, more tax you pay) - Huge depression in 1893 indicates the critique of a large economy owned by a small amount of people Exercising the Monroe Doctrine - enforced by the British, trying to prevent Europeans from getting their claws into the US - reinventing it: didn’t officially appoint as the guardian or anything but the reinvented one says that the US has the right to interevene to maintain order, stability and so they are prosperous; it will be grounds to establish control; Roosevelt sends US marines to the Dominican Republic and begins building them; THE ROOSEVELT COROLLARY Progressivism: - no central agenda; no unifying organization; not necessarily a movement but more a philosophy - reform working and living conditions to attempt moral support; to offering basic educations and English lessons to immigrants, protecting big businesses, making government more democratic, belief in progress; society might be in flux; the need for reform, urban growth has caused problems, mass immigration has created urban crowding, racial and national purity, some anxieties are making reform necessary - all of these problems are made evident through journalists named MUCKRACKING (finding all dirt they could ) Settlement House Movement: - belief that the environment shaped the individual - changing environment to make things better for people - their goal is to gather immigrant groups to get them out of tenements and slums so they have a chance of adapting to the US - JANE ADAMS and HULL HOUSE : 1889, after she spent time in England where it actually began, across to opportunity promotes participation, as the fame spread, the movement spread; by 1920 there were 400 centres across the US LECTURE 4: World War One America 1. Woodrow Wilson and the World - sends army to the south Americans who cant build one themselves; teaches them to elect good men - US adopts a policy of isolationism; this is a European matter and isn’t part of the US because we have different interests - WW1 triggers from the assassination of Franz Ferdinand - Wilson declares the US neutral since it was a European matter  meant that the US was entitled to trade freely with whomever they wanted; means safe passage for citizens on merchant and civilian ships; conformed a position of leadership and mediate an end to the war. - Even if the US succeeded in being a mediator, the issue of how to prevent future wars still exists; he believed it was because of a flawed Balance of Power - When he declared neutrality, he wanted to remain neutral in both thought and action however America shares a lot more with Britain than with Germany so neutrality didn’t work - Britain immediately blockades the European cost which violates American neutrality because it is not only stopped threats but civilians - Wilson protests, German counter blockade was more problematic (submarines- if it was going to be sunk it must be warned so civilians can be removed but that would take away from its benefit) - In German defense, they did issue a warning saying sail at own risk (Germany did what it can to conform to IL) - Lusitania was sunk by a submarine; this was full of war weapons but was a civilian ship - The US writes a series of notes to the German Empire saying that the US will not look favorably at the sinking citizen ships and if Germany is to continue doing this, this might cause the US to break off diplomatic relations with Germany which may be the first step into going into war - Peace advocates who most major progressive leaders came together to form American unionism - Others argue that the US should prepare for the possibility of war - Wilson tries to be neutral again but attacked by both peace and prepareness - He encountered a problem where they would no longer be able to buy goods as long as it was done by private citizens not the government - 1918 when money was given to Britain and France, money was given to Germany but not as much (no longer neutral) - Wilson begins to approve increases to budgets on army and navy - Wanted to mediate a peace treaty and didn’t want to get involved - “Peace Without Victory”: further nations should henceforth avoid having secret alliances with one another; no balance of power but a community of power - 5 merchant ships were sunk so US declares war - War message: they don’t have a problem with the German people, just the people running it; new international system will be built to sustain a democracy; he frames America’s war aim of principle for the US, they are in the war as an associated power, not an allied power 2. Progressive State in the Way - immoral training - the war industry is bored, war labor board: sole purpose is to dissolve dispute - Food Administration; encouraged individual Americans to plant Victory - Prohibition: sees the war as an opportunity to get it passed; says it would strengthen democracy; millions of bushels of wheat could be used for other things instead of beer 3. Women, War and the Battle of Suffrage - they didn’t have the right to vote - womens war efforts  nurses, correspondents, barriers - fighting for vote: national women suffrage association faced 4. African Americans and the Great Migration - movement out of the south and into the north and west - the war provides an opportunity for the blacks to escape the south (military service and moving north to find a job) - production demands increased leading to the war and even more during the war - labour shortage because of military needs - the north was not exactly the advertised promise land; they didn’t succeed in finding jobs, they still got put under the rug (paid lower, even lower than women at times) often not allowed to join the unions; jobs for black women were almost non existent outside domestic service, existing blacks in the north sometimes shunned the new arrivals because they were less educated and less sophisticated - the white community is not happy about the rising population of blacks - rising black population led to the emergence of black enclaves (helping to provide solid black communities) 5. War at Home - pacifists and immigrants against war o anyone who was opposed to US participation was a coward and a traitor - 4 min men: gave speeches about the American involvement in the war - German was wipes out of US curriculums 6. In the war and at the peace table - US forced 2 million soldiers to Europe but they aren’t the first to seek combat - Private citizens had the right to sign up for British and French allegiance before US joined the war American expeditionary force - 2 million volunteers and another 2.8 million drafters, only 2 million go to Europe, British and French want to merge their armies but Gen “black jack” Pershing says no they are under my command only - didn’t want to waste his troops under B and F control Wilsons FOURTEEN POINTS: - how to build a new democratic world order - first 5 were basic liberal ideas - next 8 were to redraw the map of Europe - last one was a creation of general national association (league of natures) - leads to the treaty of Versailles- gets the league of nations but US does not approve therefore US does not join (ironic) Treaty of Versailles - Wilson was the first US president to go to Europe while in office to go to Paris to sit at a peace table to contribute - Doesn’t really reflect much of Wilson’s vision (14 points); Germany is given a hard time; he does get the leave of nations (collective security); claims that Germany is reponsbile for the war and they own money for reparation; they are disarmed break down military complex but no one else does; this is harsh against Germany - Wilson comes home and brings treat to US senate for radification o Things did not go as planned, US felt he compromised to much for the US; his own party are willing to approve it only by party loyality - The senate fight o Worried about the US independence factor o Hard to amend the treaty because it was signed by other countries o US ends up not being a party of the League of Nations even though Wilson worked hard to get it o US ends war LECTURE 5: 1920’s America 1. Economic Boom - roar of the American economy, agriculture was not doing so well, unemployment reached a huge LOW - by the end of the decade, many Americans would have a registered automobile which approx. 60% Americans had a car o Auto industry biggest at the time; after the car was developed so did many industries (fast food industries, motels, assembly lines spread to other industries as well. - Mass production increased - Advertising: allowed for the impression that the money you had was to be spent; stimulates the desire for the product but also changes how Americans thought, letting go of traditional values - The ad was less about the product and more about the side effects of owning it - Advertising began to appeal even the people who didn’t have the cash to buy consumer goods - All Americans can participate through the creation of credit; was not new but grew a lot bigger - “no longer that of a citizen but as a consumer” - prosperity of this decade had an impact on the social level 2. Popular Culture - Movies: o Silent films no talking before the 1920s o Ability to add voice tracks was introduced o Movies became from going from a side show attraction to a full blown phenomenon o Rise of Hollywood; movie stars are born o By keeping prices low it allowed more people to come o 1927 first movie to introduce south (the jazz singer) - jazz: o helps start to make an American music phenomenon not just African Americans o jass was being attracted to while Americans now and appealing to a younger class; not approved by parents because they saw it as listening to “black music” o by adding symphony, it was making the music white - Radio: o Wasn’t just about music (news, sports, soaps) 3. Changing Social Values Sexual Revolution - clear change in the attitudes towards sex (used to be a private affair while the SOLE purpose to reproduce) - people talk about sex more openly, talking about the satisfaction of the pleasure of the act (both men AND women enjoying it) - song lyrics, popular dances (Burlesque); dancing without space between the two, dance suggests sex - there is still the assumption that sex should not occur until they are married however the reason for sex is changing - there is a change in so far of increased sex among engaged people because they assume they don’t have to wait for the actual day - short of intercourse (oral sex  petting) - marriage was still the aim Dating - spent time without the expectation of getting married - became popular because of the car - no expectation that marriage was included and dating permitted “petting” - dance halls and movies where young people met - car gives young people to get away from old people (parents) - changing gender views - women now objects of sexual desire but also started to be seen as individuals who themselves what to have fun and have their own desires and more independent and more assertive The New Woman - Socially  The flapper; cutting their hair (even though seen as masculine); cutting their hemline higher than the knee (illegal); wearing a lot of makeup, drawing attention to physical beauty even though it was previously used just for prostitutes; active women for today- kotex; smoking and drinking; unsupervised rides with men; petting - Economically ¼ women had jobs, working for pay; they worked womanized jobs; purchasing power (consumerism); even if it isn’t her money, their husbands would leave their money for the woman to by everything; women to be more important and significant in the economy - Politically  women now had the right to vote; politicians now have to pay attention to issues that they wouldn’t have: start to see legislation and passing bills in respect to day care standards - There was now a long path to make women 100% equal - NATIONAL WOMEN’S PARTY : Alice Paul after the form of the party left the party because se didn’t just want the vote but for people to realize the bigger picture; its vision was that men and women should be equal partners in society and it was an effort to ensure that equal partnership; it was introduced to congress in 1923 but didn’t go anywhere but it did get enough in 1972; there was a lot of women in this party that thought this was a little too radical; this means that laws were passed to support women in the industry would not be affective anymore The New Negro - THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE o This huge black population (artistic) moved to places like new york and created artistic communities o Not specific to the 20s but the 20s did it first o Black Americas spiritual coming of age; distinct culture that took told traditional culture and taking pride of who you were as a black person and taking white opinion o Have pride in not only themselves as blacks but also as Americans o Langston Hughes; poet during this time o Theme: pride in yourself as a black person and expression of homes o Before things can change, we need to take pride in our selves (how we are suppose to expect white Americans to accept us if we don’t accept ourselves?) o They had to work to work to change the perception they had of themselves in order for whites to have a different perception - Marcus Garvey: Jamaican born, encouraged black to take pride on their heritage and black pride; his his vision is different o Instead of integrating into American society and improving the place of blacks, he is a seperatist o He encourages black to maintain their racial purity and by choice not to associate with whites; he founds in UNIA to unite the negroes into one body of their own o There are many blacks in the US that wont want to go back to Africa so he encouraged them to create independent black communities outside of white society o OPPOSITE OF HARLEM RENAISSANCE - SCOPES MONKEY TRIAL: arrested for teaching evolution; comes from religious fundamentalism LECTURE 6: The Great Depression and the New Deal LECTURE 7: World War 2 America The American People at War 1939-1945 Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years - WW2 is the aftermath of the depression, taking American out - The US rejected membership to the UN - Government initiative: the Washington conference o It was called by the US president o Invites 9 nations to talk about disarmament o Produced 3 significant agreements 1) Enable disarmament treaty: Britain, Japan, Italy, France and the US 2) Executive agreement between the 4 countries; if there is an Asian cri
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