LIN204H1 Study Guide - Linguistic Description, Linguistic Prescription, Written Language

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Published on 30 Jul 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Linguistics
Course
LIN204H1
Professor
Language
Phonetic/Phonolo
gySystem of sounds (know which combinations of sounds are possible)
MorphologyKnowledge of word structure (Know which words are possible)
Syntax Knowledge of sentence structure (Know which combinations of words are possible)
Semantics Knowledge of meaning
Pragmatics Real-world usage (can recognize ambiguities in meaning/ aware of level of
formality)
Ambiguities: In a sentence, there are several meanings
Linguistics -> Scientific study of human languages/ human capacity for language
Linguists
Describe language as it is actually spoken by people native speakers accept (a word/ sentence) then that
form grammatical in that peoples dialect!
Are interested in all natural languages (dialects), non-just (standard dialect) EX: HK linguists only
wants to study Cantonese, not Mandarin
Some word/sentence can be grammatical in one dialect YET ungrammatical in another dialect
Examine speechs formality (Formal speech/ Casual speech/ Polite speech/ Impolite speech) Formal/
Informal speech are grammatical
Languages are
all systematic, and have grammar (unconscious knowledge of a linguistic rule system)
equally complex/ able to express ideas
Children acquire language without teaching!
Changing over time (continuum of language varieties)
Spoken VS Written Language
SPEECH WRITTEN
AncientWriting is NOT a LANGUAGE!!!!
Exists in all societiesWritten language is a subset of human language -> some people uses it/ able to edit
Automatically acquired
Prescriptivism VS Descriptivism
PRESCRIPTIVISMDESCRIPTIVISM
How people speak/ Describe unconscious knowledge
(Linguistics)Grammarians support that COREECT EDUCATED
ways of speaking a language
Used to study different regional/ social dialects Rules supported by purists are uncertain
Standard VS Non-standard
STANDARD NON-STANDARD
Spoken by people with social/ economic power in a
particular region (ex: In China= Mandarin) Used by socially/ politically/ non-dominant speakers
Often the basis for prescriptive ruleUsed by speakers for stylistic or other reason (ex: I ant
doing this)
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

System of sounds (know which combinations of sounds are possible) Knowledge of word structure (know which words are possible) Knowledge of sentence structure (know which combinations of words are possible) Real-world usage (can recognize ambiguities in meaning/ aware of level of formality)  ambiguities: in a sentence, there are several meanings. Linguistics -> scientific study of human languages/ human capacity for language.  describe language as it is actually spoken by people  native speakers accept (a word/ sentence) then that form grammatical in that people"s dialect!  are interested in all natural languages (dialects), non-just (standard dialect) ex: hk linguists only wants to study cantonese, not mandarin.  some word/sentence can be grammatical in one dialect yet ungrammatical in another dialect.  examine speech"s formality (formal speech/ casual speech/ polite speech/ impolite speech) formal/  all systematic, and have grammar (unconscious knowledge of a linguistic rule system)  changing over time (continuum of language varieties)