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MIE240H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Iterative Design, Neuritis, One Unit

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering
Course Code
Jamieson, G., Bina, B., Chen, W.
Study Guide

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MIE240 Textbook/Study Notes: Section I (Midterm I)
- Goal of Human Factors (HF): making the human interaction w/ systems one that enhances
performance, increases safety, increases user satisfaction
- HF: the study of factors + development of tools that facilitate the achievement of the goals of HF
- Usability: goals of productivity + error reduction
- HF Cycle:
o (A) Diagnose the problems + deficiencies in the human-system interaction of a system
and define cause of breakdowns
o (B) Soln. implementation via TETES: task design, equipment design, training,
environmental design, selection
- HF is goal-oriented (not content-oriented), cannot be tightly-defined
- 6 Stages of HF in Product Life Cycle:
o 1) Front End Analysis
o 2) Iterative Design
o 3) System Production
o 4) Implementation + Evaluation
o 5) System Operation + Maintenance
o 6) System Disposal
- Usability Engineering: subfield, embody user-centred design
- General Approaches to Design Usability Engineering:
o 1) Early focus on user + tasks
o 2) Empirical measurement
o 3) Iterative design
o 4) Participatory Design
- Front-End Analysis: analysis/studies used to understand the users, their needs and the demands
of the work situation, includes user analysis, environmental analysis and function + task analysis
- Performing Task Analysis:
o Define analysis purpose + identify type of data required
Task analysis (cognitive/physical task), task sequence, location + environmental
o Collect task data
Via observation, think-aloud verbal protocol, task performance w/ questioning,
unstructured/structured interviews, survey/questionnaires
Limits of studying pre-existing technology: fixing only surface problems that exist
now, less innovation
o Summarize task data
Lists, outlines, matrices, hierarchies, flow charts, timelines, maps
o Analyze task data

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Network analysis, workload analysis, simulation + modeling, safety analysis,
scenario specification
- Identify user preferences + requirements: closely-related to market analysis, determine key
needs + preferences
- Iterative Design + Testing: prototypes, ensure functions of the product to make sure it falls w/in
human physical and cognitive abilities. Design stage to identify + evaluate how technology fulfills
user needs + task demands (reiterative process)
- Providing input for system specifications:
o 1) Overall objectives
o 2) Performance requirements
o 3) Design constraints should not be soln. driven and creates a design space, considers
human-machine system as ONE unit
- Quality Function Deployment: makes sure design meets user needs, ie: using House of Quality
(weights design features vs. ability it meets user goals + system objectives, 9/3/1 rating scale)
- Cost-Benefit Analysis: compares cost of features vs. benefits, can be rated monetarily or 9/3/1
scale. Lower C-B ratio is better.
- Trade Off Analysis: determines which design alternative results in best performance. Downside
decision matrices tend to cause focus on features independently and not as an entire design
- HF Criteria Identification: aka Usability Requirements, specify characteristics that the system
should include relating to human performance +safety
- Function Allocation: determines which functions to be done by the human (manual) and which
by the machine (automatic). Downside “Leftover Approach”, as machines advance, more and
more designs result in leaving humans w/o a true task in the system
- Support Materials Development: should (optimally) be done in the beginning but is usually left
till end. Ie: user manuals, training programs. Critical to maximize likeliness for user to use these
support materials.
- Organization Design: training, procedure, staffing changes (managerial factors), changes to
equipment, plant layout, safety procedures, job structures.
- Macroergonomics: global approach to system design
- Prototypes: modeled approximations of final product, used to
o Confirm insights formed during front-end analysis
o Support in making ideas concrete, provide a communication medium
o Allow heuristic evaluation, usability test w/ a physical object, rapid prototyping tools
allow for fast modification.
- Heuristic Evaluation: analytical evaluation of design characteristics to determine if HF criteria are
met. Check usability + safety + comfort. Independent of the user and based on HF guidelines +
criteria. Done by more than one HF specialist.
- Usability Testing: determines ease of use of the system, have users interact w/ the system and
identify HF flaws, includes:
o Learnibility
o Efficiency
o Memorability
o Errors (low error rate)
o Satisfaction
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