Music Notes.docx

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Caryl Clark

Week 1 06/02/2013 11:14:00 WEEK 1 lecture notes Pre-Enlightenment -unquestioning and uncritical reliance on the authority of the Church and hierarchy in general (authoritarian regimes, monarchy, etc.); belief in divine law Enlightenment -develops from philosophical thinking of Descartes; Cartesian philosophy embraces empirical methods -vibrant intellectual movement rooted in rationalism and the power of reason -Rationalism; Age of Reason – epitomized by work of Voltaire and the philosophes (social reformers whose work culminated in the French Encyclopédie, 1751-65) -belief in human potential and endeavor, and the power of individual inquiry -freedom to question everything; take nothing on faith -submit everything to the rigor of reason and experiment, examination and inquiry -define the world through the senses -man is a thinking being who can use his mind to probe and question authority/tradition -engage in philosophical, theological and scientific speculation Johann Sebastian Bach (1865-1750) -his music was allied with tradition; a devout Lutheran committed to Church music -learned or strict style -counterpoint; contrapuntal arts (canon, fugue) – complexity of texture -artifice/artificiality -music with a spiritual purpose and transcendent intent—a greater purpose -music allied to church/worship, humility, mysticism -music for edification -Baroque monumentality, e.g. A Musical Offering (1747) – to Frederick the Great (a collection of various kinds of pieces based on chromatic theme proposed by monarch) vs. Music at Court of Frederick the Great (King Frederick II, reigned 1740- 1786) -French, language, fashion, and taste … at a German/Prussian court headquartered in Berlin -Sanssouci (―without a care‖)– garden palace in nearby Potsdam -rococo (French design/decoration with curved arabesques and -ornament) -galant (―elegant‖) style – free, modern, chic, sophisticated, natural, light, delightful - songlike melody, short phrases, light accompaniment, frequent cadences -melodic dominance with harmonic underpinning -balance, symmetry and simplicity -music for enjoyment / music for pleasure, entertaining, and social engagement [music-making] -Frederick the Great was a social reformer committed to social change, humanitarianism & human rights, tolerance, and bettering the lives of his subjects FURTHER RESEARCH ON INTERNET (Grove Music Online, Wikipedia etc.) People Johann Sebastian Bach Carl Philipp Emanuel (C.P.E.) Bach Frederick the Great – King Frederick II of Prussia Locations/Places Sanssouci (Potsdam) Berlin Leipzig Terms Enlightenment Rationalism Age of Reason Musical Terminology Melody Harmony Accompaniment Cadence Counterpoint/contrapuntal style Galant style Week 2 06/02/2013 11:14:00 Week 2 lecture summary Joseph Haydn -born in Rohrau, Lower Austria (March 31?) 1732; baptized April 1 father = wheelwright and amateur musician; mother = cook at nearby castle -lives inVienna in 1740s and 50s -a choirboy (treble) at Stephen‘s Cathedral school; sings in services at Hapsburg Court -after his voice changed, he became a freelance musician in Vienna -during his 20s he lives in a building known as the Michaelerhaus (still standing), where he meets other musicians and artists (poet & opera librettist Metastasio; composer and singing teacher Porpora; young pianist Marianna von Martinez) -self-taught/studies treatises and keyboard compositions of C.P.E. Bach -casual work = busking, singing in choirs and playing (organ and violin) at various church services, conducting, accompanying at lessons, playing in pick-up orchestras; composing for German Theatre -c.1758-61: court musician/composer to Count Morzin (Lukavec, Bohemia in summer; Vienna in winter) -marries in 1760 1761 – employed at court of Esterházy family, the most wealthy and prominent noble family in Hungary. Esterházy family maintained several residences, most notably: a urban (winter) palace in Vienna (Walnerstrasse) a home in the town of Eisenstadt, Lower Austria, original seat of the family after c.1766, a summer retreat called Eszterháza in the small town of Fertöd (in western Hungary) Haydn initially appointed ―Vice-Kapellmeister‖ at court by Prince Paul Anton Esterházy -responsible for secular music at court: symphony, string quartet, sonata (Kapellmeister Georg Werner = sacred music) -composes symphonic trilogy on times of day: Symphony no. 6 ―Le matin‖, no. 7 ―Le midi,‖ and no. 8 ―Le soir‖ -concertante/solo writing to show off talents of orchestra members, especially the orchestra leader, violinist Luigi Tomasini, and first cellist Joseph Weigl 1762 – Prince Nicolaus Esterházy succeeds his brother; nicknamed ―the Magnificent‖ -begins renovating old hunting lodge / future Eszterháza 1766 – Haydn promoted to Kapellmeister following Werner‘s death -purchases home in Eisenstadt when court begins summering at Eszterháza -communal musician‘s residence in both Eisenstadt and Eszterháza -Prince Nicolaus plays the baryton; Haydn composes numerous baryton sonatas and trios. Together they play chamber music. Instrumental music – listening recommendations: Orchestra Typical late 18thC Symphony is in 4 movements: I. Allegro (Fast) II. Adagio (Slow) III. Minuet & Trio (Medium) IV. Finale (Fast) Symphony no. 6, ―le matin‖, 1761 st -1 movement: -slow introduction depicts a sunrise - Allegro: simple pastoral melody, with bird calls nd -2 movement features duet for violin and cello (Haydn‘s close friends) st Symphony no. 22 in Eb major, ―the philosopher‖ - slow, contemplative 1 movement Symphony no. 31 in D major, 1765 Nicknamed ―Hornsignal‖ – features posthorn, military, and hunting calls 4 movements or sections: I. Allegro (Fast) II. Adagio (Slow) III. Minuet and Trio (Medium tempo) IV. Finale – theme and variations (Fast) Instrumentation: flute, 2 oboes, bassoon, 4 horns, strings (violins I & II, viola, violoncello, double bass, cembalo (harpsichord) Symphony no. 45 in F# minor, ―the Farewell‖ – last movement =staging a walkout! (1772) Unusual Fourth movement: Finale = Presto – Adagio Instrumentation: 2 oboes, 2 horns, strings (e.g., 3 + 3 + 2 + 1 + 1 + continuo) Chamber Music st nd String Quartet = 2 violins (1 and 2 ), viola, and cello Quartet op. 20 no. 4 in D major, 1772 4 instrumentalists engaging in equal ‗conversation‘ -music for connoisseurs -probably composed for instrumentalists at court (including Tomasini and Weigl) Sonata Solo keyboard sonata, Hob. XVI: 35 [Hoboken group XVI no. 35] in C major 3 movements: I. Allegro con brio (Fast) II. Adagio (Slow) III. Finale: Allegro (Fast) -typically young women learned keyboard instruments; this sonata was one of a set of six sonatas dedicated to the talented Auenbrugger sisters, Maria Katherina and Franziska, daughters of a well-known physician in Vienna (Hob. XVI: 20, 35-39; pub. 1780) Baryton sonata (composed for and played by Prince Nicolaus) -baryton accompanied by keyboard instrument Week 3: Haydn at Esterhazy Court – Vocal Music 06/02/2013 11:14:00 Haydn, Beethoven, Mozart – roman catholic The case of Joseph Haydn  Secular – Sacred Music o Secular Music for chamber – symphony, chain … o Sacred –Mass, requiem mass o Music for theatre – opera (sung play) Music at Court Opera at Eszterhaza  Comic opera – Italian – for the court – held the stage in London for hundreds of years.  Prince’s own taste in music oper  Late 1700’s – serious opera  Italians known for their melody  Possibility of marriage o Three act operas Performed 125 other operas by other composers 1789  year before prince Nicoli died  poets IL Mondo della lunna (1777) The world on the moon Write an opera imaging what life on the moon was like  All in the imaginary space  Trying to  7 main characters o 2 daughters  flaminia and clarice (sopranos)  lisetta (messo-soprano) – maid o father  buonafede o 3 young men  ecclitico (baritone) – bogus astrologer in love with clarice  ernesto (castrato) loves flaminia  cesco (tneor) loves lisetta o suitors – the men who are there to woo the women Action in Act I Finale  Ecclitico administers Buonafede a magic potion o Sleeping draft o B wakes up on in act 2 – where he was moved to the garden  Thought he was on the moon o Rest of the opera – imagining what the rest of act what it is like to be on the moon  SIMPLE RECITATIVE (continue accompaniment) o Dialogue/eccliticio and cuonafede  ACCONPANIED RECITATIVE (full orchestra insertions) o Depict magic of ‘flying; to the moon  3 part FINALE (continuous music) slow – fast – faster FINALE – End of Act  Continuous action with continuous music  Slow section – b flying  Clarice and liset
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