Kings and Queens to know
… 18th Dynasty
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten (Neferkheperurawaenra)
Rameses I (Menpehtyra)
Sety I (Menmaatra)
Rameses II (Usermaatra Setepenra)
Sety II (UserkheperuraSetepenra)
Queen Tausret (Sitrameritamun)
Rameses III (Usermaatra Meryamun)
Rameses IV (Heqamaatra Setepenamun)
Rameses V (Usermaatra Sekheperenra)
Rameses VI (Nebmaatra Meryamun)
Rameses VII (Usermaatra Setepenra Meryamun)
Rameses VIII (Usermaatra Akhenamun)
Rameses IX (NeferkaraSetepenra)
Rameses X (Khepermaatra Setepenra)
Rameses XI (Menmaatra Setepenptah)
Third Intermediate Period 1069-664BC
PsusennesI [Pasebakhaenniut] (Akheperra Setepenamun)
Amenemope (Usermaatra Setepenamun)
Osorkonthe Elder (Akheperra setepenra)
Siamun (Netjerkheperra Setepenamun)
PsusennesII [Pasebakhaenniut] (Titkheperura Setepenra)
Takelot II (Hedjkheperra)
23 rd Dynasty
Kings in various centres, contemporary with the later 22nd, 24th,
Pedubastis I (Usermaatra)
Nekau II (Wehemibra)
Psamtek II (Neferibra)
Ahmose II [Amasis] (Khnemibra)
Psamtek III (Ankhkaenra)
27th Dynasty (1st Persian Period)
Nepherites I [Nefaarud]
Hakor [Achoris] (Khnemmaatra)
Nectanebo I (Kheperkara)
Teos (Irma atenra)
Nectanebo II (Senedjemibra setepenanhur)
31st Dynasty : 2nd Persian Period
Artaxerxes III Ochus
Darius III Codoman Darius III Codoman
Cleopatra and her gang. New Kingdom: 18
Thursday, March 28, 2013
1. Thebes was the centre of the 18th Dynasty. It was the home of the God of Amun and the
southern residence of the king.
2. Memphis was the main area for the administration of Egypt; it was the heart of manufacturing
do to its harbour location. It was also where the Cult of Ptah was located, and some princes
(who were not going to be kings) were raised in Memphis.
3. Nubia and Levant were regular places that Egyptians visited for campaigns and explorations.
4. Woen had higher status in the upper echelon especially.
Son of Thutmose IV and a minor wife, Mutemwia. He came to the trhone somewehre between age 2 -
12. He was the Ninth king of the 18th Dynasty. He ruled for 39 years, and was known as Amenhotep
Commemorative Scarab: Marriage
Year 2: Records the name of Amenhotep III and his principal queen Tiye, along with the names
of her parents, as if to explicitly state her non-royal birth:
“the name of her father is Yuya, the name of her mother is Thuya; she is married to the
great king whose southern border is at Karoy and whose northern is Naharin”
Thuya and Yuya(KV46)
Thuya: descendant of Ahmose-Nefertari.He held many important offices, including “Singer of
Hathor”, entertainer of Min and Amun, supervisor of the harem of the god Min at Akhmim and
Amun at Thebes
from Akhmim (so is Ay). He held many titles including"King’s Lieutenant" and "Master of the
Hore"; his title Father-of-the god” (father-in-law of the king) and religious titles in Akhmim.
Amenhotep and Tiye Family
They had seven or more children. Tiye is sometimes called the Elder lady. Her statue has more
wrinklers to show accuracy. Her headdress has solar aspects (sundisk and Hathor).
Religion and Amenhotep III
Solar cult emphasized during his reign especially during his jubilee. He is never shown as a
"Great God" but rather still a "Good God." He was deified in nubia during his reign. "The good
god, lion of rulers, wild when he sees his enemies treading his path, [it is the king] ... divine ruler
of Thebes, who brought it." This showed that he thinks of himself as god on Earth in Nubia.
Religion seems to ve changing, and the solar cult became a big part of the culture. As Ray
Johnsonsaid, he called himself the Nemantre, which was the belief that the king transformed
himself as a god; other scholars disagreed. He had himself a structure at Luxor,wher the king is
standing on a plane. It was a statue of a stuate of the king. Claimed that he was worshipping his
father as Aten. Tiye was deified in sphinx form in Sedeinga, a site in Nubia.
Religion during the reign of
Building Projects of Amenhotep III
He had a different agenda to his architecture. Different vision than other kings of 18th Dynasty:
Previously, he would offer gifts of victories to the ancestors and worship them. Now, he
identifies himself with all national gods rather than the ancestors. There were more emphasize
on the solar gods.
Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III - Kon El Hettan
Mansion of Million Years. Located on the west end of Thebes. It was collapsed in 113th Century Mansion of Million Years. Located on the west end of Thebes. It was collapsed in 113th Century
BC due to a disaster. The colossal are 18m tall. In it, we founda giant stela listing building
activities and receiving the gift of life from the God. Tiye is standing behidn him as well. Tiye is
always standing behind him. They're inseparable. Thoth has the aspect as god, shown as a
baboon (baboonsare linked to the raising sun).
Malkata: the Palace of the Dazzling Aten
It was built in the 11th year; primary residence of the king; ti was where his jubilee practice was
conducted. He had a temple dedicated to Amun, with several villas for his nomarchs. There
were also houses for the relatives and a jubilee pavilion. The whole place was made mostly of
mudbricks.At the MET right now, there was a piece that was excavated in Room H. It showed
fragments of what the ceiling looks like.
Construction at Karnak
• Amenhotep I Chapel
• Amenhotep II Shrine
• Pylon and Festival Court of Thutmose II
• White Chapel
• Peristyle Hall in front of Fourth Pylon
Built: Third and Tenth Pylon with the destroyed chapels. The third pylon was a huge
statement linking with the rising and the sinking sun. It showed a solar connection with
the cult of Aten. The tenth pylon runs the North and South axis. It was realigning to run
true North rather than the local north.
Amenhotep shows himself in statue form over 250 times. These were efforts of representing
himself in monumental form, with puffy cheeks, smiling lips, and almond eyes.
Commemorative Scarab: Lion Hunt: This was for his wife. Whenever writing about his wife, he
also mentions her parents, Thuya and Yuya. Over 200 found from Ras Shamra in Syria to Soleb
in Nubia. There were 123 commemorate Lion hunts of the king from year one to year ten. On it,
he writes his 5-fold titulary of Amenhotep III, name and titles of Queen Tiye, and "statement of
lions which his majesty brought in: from his own shooting from year 1 to year 10, fierce lions
Commemorative Scarab: Building a Lake: Year 11 under the majesty of Horus: Strong bull,
appearing in truth; two ladies: Who establishes laws and pacifies the two lands; Golden Horus:
Great of Strength, smitter of the Asiatics; king of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the two lands,
Nebmaatre; son of Re: Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life; and the great royal wife Tiye,
may she live. Her father's name is Yuya; her mother's name is Tuya.His majesty commanded the
making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiye, may she live, in her town Djarukha.Its lengths is
3700 (cubits) and its width is 700 (cubits). (His majesty) celebrated the festival of opening the
lake in the third month of inundation, day 16. His majesty was rowed in the royal barge Aten-
tjehen in it.
Commemorative Scarab: Bull Hunt: In Year 2 A marvel happened to his majesty:
“There are wild bulls in the hills of the region of Shetep*.” His majesty appeared on a chariot
(span of horses) with his entire army behind him. The officers of the army, all the private
soldiers of the army, all the children of the Kap** were instructed to keep
watch for the wild bulls. Number of wild bulls taken in hunting: 40 bulls, total wild bulls: 96.
Commemorative Scarab: Gilukhepa
Ne never talks about military campaigns. This was about the arrival of Princess Gilukhepa,
daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni into the pharaoh'sharem in the 10th regnal year. She had a
retinue of 317 ladies-in-waiting. Tiye is also mentioned on the scarab
Khol-tube of Amenhotep III and Tiye
Tiye was the Great Royal Wife. Hshe lives for twelve years after he dies. His daughter was also Tiye was the Great Royal Wife. Hshe lives for twelve years after he dies. His daughter was also
given the Title Great Royal Wife, and he married her after year 30., It's not traditional to have
two living great royal wives.
Campaign to Nubia in year 5
Fort of Khaemmaat at Soleb and Temple
Campaign to Nubia in year 38
From Semna (2nd cataract). It was a military campaign against the people of Ibhet
Tally of the living and the dead among the enemy recorded as 1052. Viceroy of Kush
Merymose, (representative of the king in the south).
Relations with the East
With Tushratta (Mittani), he sends many daughters to marry Amenhotep, so It can be seen that
he was well liked: “When I heard that my brother Nimmureyahad gone to his fate, on that day I
sat down and wept. On that day I took no food, I took no water” The kings in Babylon did not
trust him at all. He had a great presence in Aegean, probably because of trades.
Amenhotep III: KV 22
He was buried there. His mummy label was found in KV35. He died at age 45 due to obesity and
arthritis. KV22 was robbed and then excavated. There were only fragments remaining to tell
what was inside.
Life in the Times of Amenhotep III:
Epidemic: The major temple had hundredsof statues of the goddess of death and medicine
(Sokhmet).Perhals this was a desparate attempt to relief the epidemic? Tell people it's fine.
Kha’emhet, Overseer of Granaries, gives homage to Amenhotep III at his heb sed Life in the
Times of Amenhotep III:
Overall, during his reign, Egypt was at the peak of its power. There were little evidence of
conflict. His monumental building projects showed his ambition. He also was able to establish
high status of women.
Son of Amenhotep III and Tiye. He has two brothers and five sisters. It's believed he was in a co-
regency in his 17-year reign. But we don’t know when. The first itme we saw his name was in
Amenhotep III's jubilee. It was a time of innovation in art, construction, religion. This reshaped the
whole Egyptian History.
He was crowned at Thebes and called "The one who Amun chose" by the priest.
In here, he built in a place never before (east of a temple with the entrance facing east instead
of west, so it's facing the rising sun).
It was a temple of Aten in Karnak. On the top, he wrote "The living one, Re-Horus of the horizon
who rejects in the harbon in His identity of light which in the Aten"
The Aten is a really old god known since the middle kingdom as a physical representation of the
sun. He is always wearing a sundisk,and is associated with royal powers. Worshiped into the
reign of Ramses II.
Building material are usually heavy blocks. He believed he needs to build them fast, so he
created these smaller materials for efficiency. created these smaller materials for efficiency. Amarna Period: 18
Amarna Period Art
These were very different from previous art works which focused on form. The Sun God is always in
the centre of the image, and some sort of worship is always depicted.
Akhenaten and Family: Amarna Style
There was always a sense of movement and activity in the Amarna style. Intimacy was depicted
as more than just an elbow touch. In Akhenaten'sportrayal, he was given a very feminine
depiction, which was common in Amarna art. The typical forms that males took were large hips,
prominent breasts, larger thighs. However, the faces were still depicted in an Egyptian style in
that they were shown in profile. Images now have both a right foot and a left foot.
Accentuation of Features
An elongation and narrowing of the neck is shown in the artwork. There was sloping of the
forehead and nose, with prominent chins and large ears and fuller lips. Almond eyes with a
heavy cosmetic line defines the Amarna style. They also had spindle-like arms and feet.
Amarna style might not be realistic, but they are always natural. The change in style may be due
1. Religion: Change of the focus of the Royal Cult was from god of Horus to the solar god.
2. Physical Reality: possible Genetic disorder? Akhenaten looks physically different. In
Ancient Egypt, looking different than others was considered a gift from the Gods, so he
must be displayed in art the way he is to show just how special he is.
3. Political Break from Priesthood to Bureaucracy: The only way for a king to gain power was
to destroy traditions and start new ones. Therefore, this shift in artwork may be signified
as the purpose of changing power.
Akahnaten and Nefertiti at Karnak
In year 5 and 6, he leaves Karnak, changed his name from Amenhotep IV (Amunis content) to
Akhenaten (He who act seffectively on behalf of the Aten, creative manifestations of the Aten) and
moved to Middle Egypt (Bani Hasan). Moreover, it wasn't just his family that moved; the whole Egypt
entity moved over.
The boundary Stela of Akhenaten
The stelae were always carved into the rocks at the Boundaries of Amarna. They were very
formulated, and they marked out where you were specifically allowed to build. The stele reads,
‘I shall make Akhetaten for the Aten, my father, in this place. I shall not make Akhetaten for him
the south of it, to the north of it, to the west of it, to the east of it. I shall not expand beyond
southern stela of Akhetaten toward the south, nor shall I expand beyond the northern stela of
Akhetaten toward the north, in order to make Akhetaten for him there. Nor shall I make (it) for
him on the western side of Akhetaten, but I shall make Akhetaten for the Aten, my father, on
east of Akhetaten, the place which He Himself made to be enclosed for Him by the mountain…'
Akhetaten el Amarna
This was where Akhenaten rurled for only about eleven to fifteen years. It was a well preserved area,
and therefore was easily excavated. In this site there was the North Palace and the North City
North Riverside Palace
It was 800mx 250,, surroundedby a double wall. It was the main palace wehre the kng and his
family lived. The gate was a big mural, and featured cutout windows. This was to allow the king
to see through the gates and see who is entering the city through sea. It was to spot enemies. to see through the gates and see who is entering the city through sea. It was to spot enemies.
This was probably originally built for Nefertiti. However, it also had the name of Kiya, the lesser
wife, on the walls. Regardless, the palace was later converted for Meritaten, a daughter. The
altar faces northward, where offeringswere given. There was no roof in the building. For the
first time ever, worship was given under direct sunlight. There were three rooms in the palace
for animal worship. The northeast corner was a large pool, which represented a lush oasis
inside the palace.
In between the North Palace and the North Riverside Palace lies the Desert Altars. These are
three different types of Altars that faced the North.
1. A cross shaped altar with stairs ascending upwards leading to an altar with a hole in the
2. A set of stairs that led up to an altar
3. The largest altar of the three
Central city of Akhetaten
It was comprisedof many parts, which were all important government buildigns.
i. Great Temple Structure, which was comprisedof two temples
i. Long temple: 190m x 33m; it had six courts, and 791 offering tables. The temple is
set up so you have to walk from the East to the West as you walk through the
pylons. The picture of an Aten temple carved on the wall of the tomb of the high
priest, Merira, shows offerings by Nefertiti and Akhenaten. Nefertiti was always
shown with Akhenaten in offerings to the God. In the Tomb of Panensy, there was a
picture of Panehsy, the highest priest in Egypt, worshiping the God of Amun.
ii. The Sanctuary: it was for two different ypes of rituals, and had an open roof. There
were 150 offering tables.
Offerings were done in two ways depending on which temple. For the Long Temple, you
grab bread from the bakery that is conveniently located next to the temple. Grab fresh
bread from the bread mold. Royal offerings at this period are the only ones left to offer
bread molds. The molds are disposed after the bread is taken. To offer to the Sanctuary,
one takes the cattle from the barn inside the Great Temple structure to offer. The bones
and stuff then are disposed outside of the structure
ii. Next to the Great Temple was the House of Pahnesy, who served as the first servitor of
Aten. The structure has retaining walls protecting the area. It is consisted of three
entrances; one to the main house, one to enter the shrine to worship Aten.
iii. By the bakery, there are numerous palaces and buildings. These are places where the
king officially greets officials and act as residents (state apartments). This is also where
servants live. Directly across is the King's house.
iv. South of the King's house was the small temple, where the King holds private worship
whenever he desires. East of the King's house was the Records office. To the north, it was
the house of life, where doctors and scribers were trained.
South of the Central City was the South Suburb
This is where we find important insights to the Amarna Period lifestyle
In the city, we find the House of the Sculptor, Thutmose. This is where we find the greatest
work of Amarna Art → the bust of Nefertiti. It was one of the best known person in Egypt, and
one of the best Egyptian Ambassador.The bust itself was considered a master piece. It was
originally done on stone, but then it got plastered. Originally, she was only depicted with one
eye (the left eye is missing). Some speculated that it was because Thutmose used this sculpture
as a way to teach his student how to sculpt in internal structure, so the eye was unnecessary.
Some believed the missing eye was a product of the destroyed workshopthat led to loss of
parts. The bust now sits in Berlin, which was conned by the German explorers.
Way south of the suburbwas the Maru0Aten, which featured a large central water feature. It Way south of the suburbwas the Maru0Aten, which featured a large central water feature. It
had T-shaped pods interlocking each other. It was originally built for Kiya, but her name got
erased later and was replaced by Maritaten.
Not too far from Maru-Aten is the workmen's village, where seventy-two houses are located
and designated for each member of the workforce. It was intended for those who were working
on the nearby tombs. Each house is equipped with a cooking area. There are twenty three
chapels outside of the village, which are small with benches. These chapels are for worshipping
all sorts of gods (Except for Aten).
Non-royal Tomb Decorations in the Amarna Period
There were no typical funerary scenes, and no reference to Osiris, meaning no reference to after life.
This was because of the shift to worshiping Aten nowadays. It was said that when the Aten rises,
everything lives, including the dead. Therefore, there was no need to fan afterlife anymore. The
owners of the tombs were depicted with the Royal family, but then Aten only touches the royal
family. It was to signify that the Aten gives blessing to the king who in turn spreads the blessing to the
owner of the tomb. Lost Queens, King Tut, and the Rest of the 18th Dynasty
Around Year 12, Kiya disappears. She had appeared in the king's life since year 5. She was known as
the Greatly beloved wife of the king. After disappearing, her names were replaced with Meritaten.
Why did she disappear? She might have died while giving birth to her children, or she might have
fallen from favour. She might have been King Tut's mom; if so, then Nefertiti's power was threaten,
and so she might have had Kiya removed from her status. However, this is uncertain because King
Tut's mom can also be Nefertiti. Kiya is always shown wearing hooped earrings. She sports a wide
Around Year 12- 14, Nevertiti disappears as well. She might have fallen out of favour or died. Recent
unpublishedwork, however, found that she was stilll tited as "The Great Royal Wife"I in year 16, whch
means she might not have been dead. If she was still alive, she might be "Neferneferuaten
Ankhetkheperura."Since "Neferneferuaten" was a name for three royal women, It was unsure if this
was Nefertiti. If it was nefertiti, she must've ruled by herself for two to three years. If this name
referred to Meritaten, then she ruseld as king. However, it was sure that Meritaten married Smenkare
Ankhkheprureand then she was known as the Great Royal Wife. Why would she just step down after
ruling the kingdom by herself instead of initiating a co-regent? A third option may be that
Neferneferuaten was the third daughter of Nefertiti. It's likely that Neferneferuaten came before
Smenkare. However, Akhenaten and Smenkare were written on the same stela, which definitely
showed a line of succession.
King Tutankhaten (King Tutankhamun)
He was given in one inscription as the King's son of his body, which means the king was saying "I
fathered this child." But who was his mother? He was born some time some time between Year 7 and
Year 11. Many things remain a mystery to his reign. For example, if he was born when Akhenaten was
still alive, why was there a woman ruler before him, even when Akhenaten died? He came to the
throne as a minor, probably around seven to eight years old. He married his sister, Ankhsenpaaten.
They both changed their name by year two; King Tutankhaten changed it to Tutankhamun. He also
abandoned the Amarna area and returned to traditional Egyptian religious practices.
Death of King Tut
His death was marked when he was nineteen years old. By that time, we know he was seriously
looking at Nubia for campaign. It was a very sudden death. Two still borns were buried with King Tut.
Since he and his sister/wife, Ankhsenamun,did not have any heirs, we don't know what happens.
Ankhsenamunand her letter to the Hittite King, Suppilulimas I
It was a very intersting letter; basically, she was asking to be married to a foreign prince.
"My husband has died and I have no son. They say about you that you have many sons. You
me one of your sons to become my husband. I would not wish to take one of my subjects as a
I am afraid."
This was because she was so used to power, but there were no one royal for her to marry. Therefore,
she tried to cement an alliance with the Hittite. The Hittite king actually sent one of his son, Zannanza
(who was murdered on his way to Egypt) to get married with Ankhsenamun.But before he sent his
son, obviously he verified that King Tut was indeed dead. Since Zannanza, died, Ankhsenamunended
up marrying Ay.
Ay came to the throne at a very old age, and he might have only ruled for 3 years. He was from
Akhmim, like Yuya and Thya. He called himself God's Father, maybe in reference to now he was the Akhmim, like Yuya and Thya. He called himself God's Father, maybe in reference to now he was the
tutor of King Tut, and acted as "Deputy of the Lord of Two Lands."Horemheb remained as the
"Deputy of the ord of two Islands, and made sure to burn jury w sure hew was the, making sure to
bury Tut in full Monastery rights and portrayed him as praised. Ay took over KV23, the tomb that Tut
origianlly built for himself but never finished.
He was the son of Ay, given the title "Deputy of two lands," but he doesn't become king when Ay died.
Horemheb destroyed all of Nakhtmin's records and took the throne.
Horemneb held a long military career since Amenhotep III was king. He has no relation to the
eighteenth dynasty, meaning he was non-royal who ascended the throne. He recreated kingship as it
was given. He says he was elected by the god of Amun (much like how Hatshepsut keeps saying she
was elected and chosen by the god of Amun). He keeps emphasizing on the fact that he was not royal
and was elected by the god in his cornation statement. He probably used Hatshepsut's stela as a
His power starts counting after Amenhotep III. He wanted to get rid of Amarna records. His highest
regnal year was 13, although it was suggested of possible longer reigning. He had two tombs:
1. Finished when he was an officer back in Saqarra
2. The one he was buried in at Thebes - KV57. He puts the goddess Hathor in it as well.
Maxims of Ani
The maxim is a set of rules a father writes to his successoron behaviours and conduct. It follows
the traditional format of Father to son. It's not the king talking to his prince, but rather takling
to two ordinary man. On it, it says "Trust is sent by god. You must marry a woman when you are
young, and let her have children while you are young.Do not eat bread without giving some to
those near you who do not have anything to eat, since the bread is eternal while man does not
He goes on a lot of campaings. He tries to regain Kadesh and Amurru from the Hittites through
His death marks the end of the 18th Dynasty. Ramessid Period: 19
When Horemheb did not have a son, he chose to adopt. And he adopted Ramses, a military man from
Avaris/ Piramesses. Piramesses protected the Egyptian Border, and came to the throne as an old man.
He was chosen by Horemheb because he already has a son and a grandson, which means there would
be a line of successionfrom Ramses onward.
Sety I was the son of Ramses I. He was awarded a priestly status including the High Priest of Seth.
Karnak: The Great Hypostyle Hall
He was one of the greatest builders at Karnak. The Great Hypostyle Hall was roofed. It has 134
columns; 12 open form and 122 close forms. The open part is as high as 21m, and 5.4mwide.
The closed ones were 15m high.
Obelisk of Sety I
It was originally from Heliopolis, but stood at the port of Alexandria.
He also builds at Thebes, Abydos, Memphis, Heliopolis and Avaris
Abydos:The Temple of the God Osiris
Because Sety is associated with Seth, he made sure not to upset the worshipers of Osiris. At
Abydos, where he built a temple of Osiris, he only phonetically wrote "Seth" on the walls.
Sety's campaign at Karnak
Sety was always shown to have a companion with him when he goes on battles. This was his
friend, Meny. He had no royal or military status, so he was only there to support Sety (in
spirit?). Ramses II doesn't like that so he carves out Meny's name and replaced it with his name.
Sety I and Ramses II's co-regency
Ramses II was born before ramses I became king, and so he knew he was not royal. When
depicted in art, Sety is always shown bent over. Why? Maybe he was old, and not healthy.
Therefore, he needed Ramses II for a co-regency.
He had the second longest reign in Egypt (67 years), just short of Pepy II's sixty-nine year reign. He
made numerous monumental statements, making sure to be remembered as the warrior king. By
year 3, he has already himself made a statue called "The God Ramses. "His first campaign as a warrior
was on a chariot. He wanted to be known for his strength with
arms, and always shows himself with his kids.
Year 2- the Sherden Pirates
At the coast of Egypt, oming up the Nile, there was an attack caused by the Egyptians. They
smashed the pirates that were coming into the country.
‘the unruly Sherden whom no one had ever known how to combat, they came boldly sailing in
their warshipsfrom the midst of the sea, none being able to withstand them. But he plundered
them by the strength of his valiant arm’
Year 4 - The Syrian Campaign
In Year 4, he goes up to Syria and smash the enemies. He admired Thutmose III's work, so he
wanted to reestablish the power in Kadesh just like Thutmose did. This caused the King at
Attippo to worry.
Year 5 - The Kadesh War Year 5 - The Kadesh War
This was considered the big battle, and it was perhaps the most well known battle that he
writes about everywhere. And I mean everywhere. The involved parties were:
- Muwatalli: 19 allies including Rimisharrinaa, King of Allepo; the Dardanians (mentioned by
- Ramses II: Four divisions - Amun, Re, Seth, and Ptah; Nearin
No one knows who the Nearins were, just that they came from Byblos.
Kadesh was a city surroundedby water, which presents itself as a natural barrier. Ramses II was
tricked: as his army was marching, he met two spies who told him that the allies were hiding in
fear. To Ramses's happiness, he rushed to camp and tries to invade. He realized that he has
been tricked upon walking in the narrow path to Kadesh (which only fits one troop). Rather
than creating a plan, he just killed any Hittites he saw, as he just lost the division of Re. The
Hittites, who were very satisfied right now, lost guard. That's when the Egyptian army came in
and attacked. The Hittikes quickly fled their camp grounds,leaving their weapons everywhere.
They swam back into Kades