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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Hicham Saffiedine

Essay Turkey - Government developed from the single party rule of the Republican People’s Party to a multi-party system o Democratic Party  Motivated by business’ desire for economic freedom  Promised to reduce interventionist practices of the Kemalist state  Motivated by rural development  Won over a large proportion of the rural peasantry  Pledged to make agricultural reforms  Imported expensive machinery  Constructed highways thus making the distribution of goods more accessible  Religion:  Legalized the call to prayer  Religious instruction was provided in schools  Won the elections of 1950  Prime Minister: Adnan Menderes  President: Celal Bayar  Downfalls:  Mid-1950’s economic recession  Vast government debt  Introduced oppressive laws, censoring press, journalism etc. o Coup d’Etat  1960:  Arrested Democratic Party members o Charged with political and financial corruption  Returned power to politicians in October 1961 o Bicameral system: senate and an assembly  1971:  Removed the Justice Party o Unable to quell violence brought on by economic dissatisfaction o Increased Kurdish separatist movement o Revived Islamic revolution brought on by the National Salvation Party o Demographic Changes:  Population doubled in 25 years  Rapid urbanization  1960s: migration into Western Europe for economic opportunities  Turkey was governed under several coalition parties o The Cyprus Question:  Initially conquered by the Ottomans, who developed alongside the residing Greek inhabitants  1878 occupied by Britain  1950’s Greek Cypriots launched a movement for independence  1960, Cyprus was granted independence  Several confrontations between Turkey and Greece: 1964, 1974  Severed Turkey-US relations:  US halted aid after the 1974 incident  Turkey strengthened realties with the Soviet Union Iran - Muhammad Reza Shah o Assumed his throne in 1941  Under Anglo-Soviet occupation  Shared power with other institutions - Tudeh (Masses) Party o Comprised of young Marxists o Endorsed:  Labor legislation  Land reform for workers and peasants  Political rights for women  Improved wages for lower-level civil servants o Most efficient political organization in Iran - Britain o Tried to unite the monarchy with large landowners and powerful tribed - Soviet union o Supported Tudeh - United States o Supported anything anti-Soviet o Supplied several weapons during the reinstatement of the Shah - Muhammad Mosaddiq (National Front) o Campaigned against foreign interventionism o The National Front was formed by multi-faceted politicians including the ulama and Western-educated professional o Anglo-Iranian Oil Company  Had its own company town in Abadan  Built its own roads, own civil services etc.  Foreigners were favored for professional positions, Iranians were only hired for labor jobs  Mosaddiq called for a cancellation of concessions from the AIOC to Britain  Nationalized the oil industry o AIOC boycotted Iranian oil as a result  Mosaddiq became Prime Minister o The National Front lost popular vote to the Tudeh Party, an
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