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Published on 24 Feb 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Political Science
Course
POL101Y1
Civil Military Relations and Democracy
Dec 06/10
Politics is about obedience, and nowhere else is obedience more of a problem then in C.M.R
-All of the ability to project violence, and we take it away from our self and give it to this
group, such as to the police, but mainly the military, they can use in order to get more
power, we gave the military all the power to a small group, nothing can keep them from
turning into a “Dr. Evil, question is why do they obey us when they have these weapons
Problems of the Guardians
Democracies Still Live in a World of States
-The world is made up of states, there is no order controlling the world, no one poses this
order or there are states trying to attain this order; but all states field armies
-Those that fail to field armies risk losing the state; example of Poland in 18th century
Poland did not exist, Poland was taken over, Polish nobility failed to vote for taxes,
because they were incredible free, they did not field an army, and it was chopped up
between the Germans, the Russians, & the Hapsburgs, not a country for 150 years
From Feudal to Mass Armies
-If you field an army, question becomes what kind of army do you field, feudal armies
made up & led by the nobility, story of modern state is mass armies of elite citizen armies
-If you have a mass army; which can make you a powerful country, question becomes:
Draft versus Professional Armies
-Professional armies are soldiers that volunteer and that are paid, or a Draft armies are
soldiers that were conscripted and are forced by law to join the forces
90% of class believes democracies need armies
85% of class prefers a professional army over draft
Who Guards the Guards?
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-When you have a professional army, you are much more likely to go to war, because you
get to use the army since it is there, as opposed to a draft army, in which case war would
be unpopular amongst the people so they would urge representatives (in a mass
democracy) not to go to war; problem with draft armies: you do not get to use them
What is the Mode of Control of Civilians over the Military?
-Objective Control: best achieves control of the military by civilians, as the military must
obey the governments decisions, therefore giving civilians control over the military
Huntington: Subjective VS Objective (NEVER PURE; ALWAYS MIXTURE IN STATES)
-This was the first piece Huntington had written, in his young age, he was dealing with the
fact that in 1954 it become apparent to a lot of Americans that they were going to have a
large, well financed, permanent, standing military for the first time
-The problem of civil military relations had never been brought up before this point,
America had a tradition of bringing up militias, they were decentralized, at community
level, armed citizens protecting the community; protected by 2nd amendment
-Huntington maintained that in Subjective Control (the first model in American history,
militia or citizen army), if you want a citizenry used to used to cycling in and out of role
of military, sometimes they had the role of soldier other times of regular occupations, it
was ultimately their commitment to democracies is what mattered, that is what controlled
them, it was their values, faith, loyalty, and commitment to democracies, what this
worked out to be was soldiers ended up being Fascist, whatever system you had, it is the
subjective commitment of the soldiers themselves, that is one model, for a long time, that
was the only model, the citizen soldier, even modern day, many states follow this model
of a standing citizen army, model of control based on what people think, so then you
would want a soldier educated and committed to democracy if you are in democracy,
maximum contact between military and civilian, the soldiers are students, the students
study military science, political science, taught by professors not in military uniform, the
idea is that soldiers were not trained in military bases but in schools, when they would
graduate then they would enter the military as an officer, schooling was paid for,
argument here is your not separating the officer core from the citizenry
-In the Objective Model, largely the model we live under today, there is a clear separation
between soldiers and citizens; there is a professional soldier and professional officer, the
soldiers commitment is to obey what the civilians tell him/her to do, not expected to get
involved in politics, they do not train to be democrats but to follow the orders of civilians,
they often live their own lives on bases, they are trained at elite military academies, the
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Document Summary

 politics is about obedience, and nowhere else is obedience more of a problem then in c. m. r. Evil , question is why do they obey us when they have these weapons.  democracies still live in a world of states. The world is made up of states, there is no order controlling the world, no one poses this order or there are states trying to attain this order; but all states field armies. If you field an army, question becomes what kind of army do you field, feudal armies made up & led by the nobility, story of modern state is mass armies of elite citizen armies. If you have a mass army; which can make you a powerful country, question becomes: Professional armies are soldiers that volunteer and that are paid, or a draft armies are soldiers that were conscripted and are forced by law to join the forces.  90% of class believes democracies need armies.