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[POL200Y1] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (103 pages long!)

103 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Ryan Balot

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UTSG POL200Y1 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at The Allegory of the Cave: The prisoners of the cave are like us, without education. We are meant to find the condition of the prisoners pitiful. They are not mean to be seen as having lives worth living. The idea is that we are imprisoned by ignorance. We mistake illusion for reality. We receive images and sounds from puppeteers and we wrongly think that we are receiving truth, when in reality the truth is outside of our prison and into the sun. The puppeteers in this case are unquestioned authority figures (our parents for example, teachers, schools, religions, cultures, media). If you think about it, we have inherited many more ideas and we keep them far further into adult life than we are conscious of. We take conventions much further than we may realize. Like the prisoners in the cave, we might dogmatically resist enlightenment. The light blinds the eyes of the prisoners, they want to return to their old certainties. The old certainties feel safer, they are less scary. Why dig deeply into the nature of the opinions that we live by? In the image, the puppeteers are also in the cave. They live their lives in the belief that reproducing human convention is the most important goal. It can be very satisfying to have convention. Education is not like putting knowledge into souls that lack it, true educators assume that everyone has the poer to lear. Eduatio takes for grated that sight is there, it just ist lookig here it ought to look. Education is meant to redirect. Education is not easy, but it is beneficial. For one, there is liberation fro the hais of oetio, fro eliefs that are ot iheretl our o. Beliefs that dot reflet what you think when you really think about it. To understand things for yourself, you must be open to being unsettled. The second benefit is coming to understand things as they are. Seeing things that are realities, and are outside us. The idea is to dispense with illusion. We might find upon reflection that our conventions are worth endorsing, but then we will be endorsing them for ourselves, on our own, with knowledge and understanding. The idea that only you can be the judge of your own happiness agrees with Hobbes, who said that the states role is to esure that eah perso a pursue their o a of happiess, without imposing. The Good Platos idea of thigs that are defiitel good, that huas should follo to lead a good life. This is like a dotor, he a tell ou hats rog ith ou, ad our o opiio o the atter does not count. This is what he says about the Good. The state exists to Plato (maybe) to promote this objective standard of goodness. Home vs. The Rest of the World Does Affluenza mandate intervention? Who and what? Practical instead of theoretical concerns are also a thing. Cicero: Human fellowship consists of many levels, from Supranational, to international, domestic, family, etc. o Cicero tries to convince you that patriotism is the key psychological motivation grounded in our beliefs that provide the best context for our flourishing. o Cosmopolitan thinkers would deny this: states tend to divide human beings What is politics? Etymology: Polis: a selfgoverning city state composed of a simple urban center with public institutions. Politics is the business of the Polis specifically in relation to power. The political is a sphere of activity in hih poer is eerised ad otested. Poer is the ailit of the poerful ator to ahiee effets that the iflueed ator ould ot hoose to hae our. find more resources at
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