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POL200Y1 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Merchant Prince, God, Christianity


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL200Y1
Professor
Clifford Orwin
Study Guide
Midterm

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POL200Y1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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Modernity:
Faith in progress
Genetic Engineering:
Reports of couples in the future will build their offspring
Are thinkers today still modern? (Study question #1)
Some are modern, others are post-modern
o How to distinguish?
Post-modernism does not go back, always progresses
Takes authority of modernity
Post-Modernity:
Post-modernists claim to represent modern thoughts
Skepticism and Modernity:
Hope is skepticism will pursue good results by pushing away law and just ideas
Both ideas work together
Reasons for Praising Machiavelli:
Italian patriot
Nationalist, realist, pragmatist
Machiavelli is identified as modern by others
His modernity was strange to others who were thought to think a certain way at this time;
misunderstood because he was modern
Machiavelli:
Regarded as most evil human who ever lived
'The old nick' is the nickname for Satan
Why was he perceived by people of his generation as 'wicked'?
o Looked at as amoral
o Accepted, encouraged, and taught ruthlessness
o People believed his influence was pervasive
o A teacher, a tempter and corrupter
Similar to Satan (corrupter)
Gets you used to doing long tasks
Master of metaphors
Machiavelli's book is dedicated to Lorenzo's grandson
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Chapter 2:
Primarily interest to Lorenzo
o Is reassuring to him
o Almost impossible to lose your hereditary principality and even if he does, he'll easily
regain it
Chapter 3:
However most of these problems he describes are also problems of hereditary princes
o Ex. That people take up arms against their lord in hope that they will do better
o NM contradicts himself but was it on purpose?
Discusses friendships
o Says we owe friends more than we owe others
o The seemingly moral lesson or is it? only strike on your friends, when they have done
the first blow on you, but you must never strike the first blow
This advice that you should only strengthen yourself the second time seems to
go against NM's teachings and doesn't make much sense in the context
What NM says is often different from what he implies
Why do people become friends according to NM: everyone sees the other friend
as a means to the end of something and this of course leads to conflict as well.
After your interests are achieved, things tend to diverge
It would in fact be contradictory to NOT betray your friend as the
friendship itself was a means to the good; why would you now choose the
friendship over the good
Objection to NM: If you betray your friends all the time, then you will get
a reputation and no one will want to be friends for you and you will never
achieve your means
NM responds to this objection
They were already going to betray you (remember it's also in their
best interest) so you should do it first
o Men should either be caressed or eliminated
It is in your interest to eliminate them
First contemporary non-Italian examples mentioned here
o Also, first appearance of ancient examples
o Throwback to continuous observance of ancient things and readings that he
mentioned in the Introductory
Winners and Losers
o King Louis of France (Loser) - Lost Milan twice
Always doing things for others
Always making others powerful at this own offense
Makes him dependent on them
o Romans (Winners) - Constant winners
They played the long game and eliminated obstacles in a timely manner
The friendship lesson can also be applied here
Were proactive and preemptive
Made bad things happen to other people instead of waiting for bad things
to happen to them
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