POL200Y1 Study Guide - Cephalus, Glaucon, Polemarchus
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Plato – The Republic
Plato is traditionally thought to have been born in 428 B.C. and have died in 348. His
father, Ariston, was believed the last king of Athens, his mother, Prediction, was related to
Solon, the first architect of Athenian constitution. He had two brothers, Glaucon and
Adeimantus. Also Plato had a sister, Potone, whose son took over as head of the Academy on
Plato was a stranger to Athenian politics as her mother married to politician after his
father’s death. It would be completely natural that Plato took over politics as he grew older,
but in his seventh letters he explains why he refused to do so. The reason behind was arrest
of Socrates, as he refused to take part in politics. Thus Plato believed that he had to praise
true philosophy that it enables him to discern what is just.
At the age of forty Plato visited Sicily in order to meet Pythagorean philosophers.
Afterwards in 368 BC Plato was sent to Dionysius 2 to teach him how to rule a state. Plato
stayed in Sicily because he had something to teach about the real political significance. As it
is seen in Republic, is that Plato believed that kings must become philosophers or
philosopher must become kings.
Polemarchus – Forces Socrates to stay and talk with force. Person who is devoted to honor.
Cephalus – Father of Polmarchus. Aged man who is wealthy. Socrates and Cephalus discuss
the burdens of old age. He does not provide theoretical reflection thus leaves disappointed.
Glaucon – brother of Plato
Adeimantus – brother of Plato.
Thrasymachus – is an example of people of Athens, who teach youth public speaking, the
art of speaking. Also he can the considered as a sophist person.
1. Instability, because of war decision (Persia), which were upheld by citizens who were
45,000 among 340,000 residents.
2.462 BC Athens moved from traditional institutions to more democratic
3.Direct Democracy was used as a module.
4.Selections were used as it is democratic, instead of aristocratic elections. People have
freedom only on the day of election; afterwards they are dependent on their
Paradoxes in Athens
1.Citizenship was granted only to male
2.Citizenship was granted only whose who have done military sevice
3.Citizenship was elective
4.1/10th of total population
5.Groups of citizens had advantages over residents
6.Practices of Colonization
Democracy Criticisms by Plato
1. There was luck of experts in Athens, therefore Plato suggested better educational
model. Luck of experts lead to bad decision making
2.Community was open to manipulation by the power of individuals who had
Deference’s of Democracy
1.Democracy provided with the principles of equity and liberty. This was how politicias
referred to citizens which could be considered as a way of life.
2.Governments are more responsible, thus it leads to better results. Also it would be
difficult to corrupt.
3. It can be argued that collective judgments produce better outcomes. Argument can
be lead in this way that common desire and interest of making a decision is more
democratic than just one and it would lead to results of common desire in a long run.
4.Authority motives people and makes them happy. It is argued when there is a spread
of public authority people feel better with the participation of public life.
Plato is traditionally thought to have been born in 428 b. c. and have died in 348. His father, ariston, was believed the last king of athens, his mother, prediction, was related to. Also plato had a sister, potone, whose son took over as head of the academy on. Plato was a stranger to athenian politics as her mother married to politician after his father"s death. I t would be completely natural that plato took over politics as he grew older, but in his seventh letters he explains why he refused to do so. The reason behind was arrest of socrates, as he refused to take part in politics. Thus plato believed that he had to praise t rue philosophy that it enables him to discern what is just. At the age of forty plato visited sicily in order to meet pythagorean philosophers. Afterwards in 368 bc plato was sent to dionysius 2 to teach him how to rule a state.