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LOCKE

6 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL200Y1
Professor
Rebecca Kingston

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Lecture (March 27th)
Freedom & Obligation
Rebutting Claims of Paternal authority (Chps 6-7)
Disentangling the Political from the Famicial (Chp.7)
Chp.8- A LockeanTwo-step”
Problem of Historical Monarchy
Problem of Tacit Consent
Chp. 9 Ends of Political Society
Locke’s political society has a pre-existing moral compass
Rebutting Claims of Paternal Authority
Goal is to understand the transition from the state of nature to civil society
Tension between freedom and obligation is to create an independent sphere of the
political; it is independent of religious authority
Unlimited authority based on patriarchy derived from power from Adam, Locke’s
concern is to distinguish paternal and political power; human beings are not born with
irresistible obligations
Political authority is separate from parental authority
Filmer had the theory of inheritance
Locke is a realist, he realizes that children are not born into a world of equality, they are
born with a dependency upon their parents, the reason is that the law of nature is the law
of ‘reason’ people must rationally understand their rights and duties if they are to be free,
as minors with their rationality is undeveloped they are beings that are not subject to the
law
The law is not the limitation it is the directions of a free and intelligent agent to the law
Parents therefore: have authority over their children, only so far as they have a duty to
nourish them to develop their mental capacity, full bearers of free will, and self
conscience adherence to nature
Parental authority if its based on authority, once that duty is discharged, most countries
suggest 21 years of age, when that happens at that point the authority of parents over
children is temporary
When a person comes into the age of 21 he is equal in front of society with his own
parents, Locke in paragraph 59. says that what is good enough for the father is good
enough for the son, pokes a hole in Filmer’s theory
p.63 suggesting that individual freedom comes through the proper development of reason
till the age of maturity, so as to attain a mature and adult freedom to go along with the
laws as he/she enters society
He does this to show that Filmer and the reader will have to accept that they are born to
freedom, as their parents’ duties upon them will eventually be discharged
Locke is here recognizing the way in which childhood might be a problem for liberal
theory
www.notesolution.com
Liberal political order assumes that people enter society as adults
Some people argue that liberal political philosophy does not pay attention to the family
because it is outside of the public
But it does need to have a theory of the family because otherwise it would not be credible
Locke comes up with a theory to show the public and the private division to place the
family and the public in two different spheres
Section 83- he says that the household is a private sphere not to be interfered with, state
should be kept out of marriage
Parents have a duty to care for their children and children have a duty to respect their
parents
Moral law, significance of that is that when we discuss the laws of nature in Hobbes
those were hypothetical imperatives, matter of prudence, but for Locke they are non-
negotiable, it is YOUR DUTY,
None of the familial duties gives the right to command their adult children
Inheritance (huge role in Filmer’s theory)
Paragraph 72-73 despite the physiological ties that might bind the child to the father the
moral duties stay the same there is no justification for arbitrary power over their child
even if that child very badly wants to inherit all of his fathers estate
Filmer used inheritance from Adam, Locke points out that inheritance is like a carat, the
father is the one who happens to control what is potentially worth a lot of money, but
Locke points out that this sort of carat is available to anyone that is able to inherit money
The primary point of Filmer’s theory have now been done away with, Locke by the
different account of rights and duties and how psychology works along side them
Paragraph 66- Locke points out that even a monarch owes honour to his mother, which
doesn’t reduce his political authority or subject him to her government
Paragraph 69- the father and mothers authority does not extend to making laws
Paragraph 71- argues that the family and the political society have different foundations
and different ends, family is for education, princes have families and in respect to their
families they are exactly the same as their subjects but this doesn’t not affect their
political authority which comes through consent; parental authority is different because
children are not free to consent
Paragraph 86- Key point: the family relationship have a different constitution, different
powers, and different ends from the political relationship
Chp. 7 (Husband/Wife relationship)
Talks in a way that reminds us of Aristotle about the household
Husbands and wives come together through consent that they make with one another,
which requires justice and trust even before civil society is established
The goal of marriage paragraph 83- the marriage relationship is for making children and
mutual support and assistance, the political should intervene only when there is an
irresolvable dispute
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture (March 27 )th Freedom & Obligation Rebutting Claims of Paternal authority (Chps 6-7) Disentangling the Political from the Famicial (Chp.7) Chp.8- A Lockean Two-step Problem of Historical Monarchy Problem of Tacit Consent Chp. 9 Ends of Political Society Lockes political society has a pre-existing moral compass Rebutting Claims of Paternal Authority Goal is to understand the transition from the state of nature to civil society Tension between freedom and obligation is to create an independent sphere of the political; it is independent of religious authority Unlimited authority based on patriarchy derived from power from Adam, Lockes concern is to distinguish paternal and political power; human beings are not born with irresistible obligations Political authority is separate from parental authority Filmer had the theory of inheritance Locke is a realist, he realizes that children are not born into a world of equality, they are born with a dependency upon their parents, the reason is that the law of nature is the law of reason people must rationally understand their rights and duties if they are to be free, as minors with their rationality is undeveloped they are beings that are not subject to the law The law is not the limitation it is the directions of a free and intelligent agent to the law Parents therefore: have authority over their children, only so far as they have a duty to nourish them to develop their mental capacity, full bearers of free will, and self conscience adherence to nature Parental authority if its based on authority, once that duty is discharged, most countries suggest 21 years of age, when that happens at that point the authority of parents over children is temporary When a person comes into the age of 21 he is equal in front of society with his own parents, Locke in paragraph 59. says that what is good enough for the father is good enough for the son, pokes a hole in Filmers theory p.63 suggesting that individual freedom comes through the proper development of reason till the age of maturity, so as to attain a mature and adult freedom to go along with the laws as heshe enters society He does this to show that Filmer and the reader will have to accept that they are born to freedom, as their parents duties upon them will eventually be discharged Locke is here recognizing the way in which childhood might be a problem for liberal theory www.notesolution.com
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