POL101Y1 Words.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

POL101Y1 Words, Definitions and Important Terms Compilation This document has most of the terms covered throughout the course of POL101. The terms have their according definitions and I compiled it for everyone in hopes that it will help them on their exams. Unfortunately I didn’t think of putting it in alphabetical order because I’m a dumbass. LOL . Just use the “find” function for the word(s) that you’re looking for. - Fascism: A form of government where the interests of the government is obtained through the means of the people. This ideology forces ideas and norms out if they are deemed unfit, and forces everyone under one belief and one rule. Lead by one person who is seen as supreme - Socialism: Economic viewpoint, where everything is commonly owned. Not to be confused with Communism - Communism: Ideology where a classless society would exist and sustain itself, politically, economically, and socially. There would be no dominant class and everything would be shared equally amongst all citizens, and there would be a central plan to everything. Distribution would be based on need and not desire. Communism was Karl Marx’s ideal society. Every citizen would work and be productive, thus removing the capitalist market from play. - Capitalism: An economic system where people have the right to privately own and run means of production and make their own profit. - Totalitarianism: form of government where government exercises total control and sees no limit to its authority and controls all public and private spheres. - Democracy: form of government where the right to vote is given to each individual - Ostracism: Procedure from Athenian democracy where any citizen could be expelled from Athens for 10 years - Feudalism/Feudal Society: Lower class depended on higher class. The higher class would own land, and the lower class would work and give a share of their production to the upper class as payment for “rent” and protection. - Feudal Socialist: A viewpoint that opposed the Bourgeoisie society. These French and English aristocrats believed that the Bourgeoisie were indirectly creating a revolutionary proletariat. This proletariat would end up uprooting and distorting the old order of society. They did not like what the modern Bourgeois were doing. - Petty/Petite Bourgeoisie: Those in the middle class of Marx’s society. He believed that this middle class would disappear and become either Bourgeois or Proletariat. - Conservative/Bourgeois Socialism: Bourgeoisie wanted to fix social disorders in order to ensure the continued existence of the Bourgeois. However, they wish for a Bourgeoisie with a Proletariat. - Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism: Wanted to “free” the proletariat. Proletariat wanted to thrive on their own, but did not possess the skills to do so. - Differences between presidential and parliamentary government - Parliamentary government: A form of government where leader of the dominant political party is leader of the state. Executive branch is very close with legislative branch. Ex. Canada - Presidential government: A form of government where the Leader of the state is elected, but the parliament may consist of a higher number of members from opposing parties. Executive branch is separate from the legislative branch. Ex. United States of America - Authoritarianism: A form of government where the state is led by one figure or limited to a small, privileged group. - Bourgeoisie and Proletariat: Karl Marx’s names given to the describe the upper class or those who owned property (Bourgeoisie), and the lower class, wage-labourers and those who worked for the Bourgeois (Proletariat) - Constant’s Theory on Liberalism of the Ancients and the Moderns: Constant saw that there were big differences between what the ancients saw as liberty, and what the moderns saw as liberty. Moderns saw liberty as individual freedom, to express opinions freely and only be subjected by law. Their influence on the government would be through the votes. Ancients saw liberty as everyone participating in politics with public discussions and the forming of alliances. The ancients believed that public politics was vital for liberty, but private actions were strictly monitored. - 5 Virtues of Democracy. Pluralism, Liberty, Equality, Rule of Law, Institutionalized Uncertainty - Pluralism: multiple interest, democracy must find a compromise. - Liberalism: freedom of the people. Freedom to do what we want and say. - Equality: Political equality. We are all equal, regardless of age, gender, race, social class) - Rule of Law: Rules that the government and the people MUST follow. Democratic voting, protection. - Institutionalized Uncertainty: The ability to vote the government out. Marx’s Historical Materialism, Base, Superstructure, Alienation - Historical Materialism: Marx’s theory saying that material conditions ultimately constitute a man’s consciousness. This means that the production of materials makes man who they are, and also creates society. Humans must create materials in order for survival. - Base: The working class relationships, the laborious jobs, relation of production. - Superstructure: The tools that serve the dominant class. The dominant class is defined as those who own the modes and means of production. By tools, it is not meant as literal, tangible tools, but rather factors such as values, ideologies, laws that allow the dominant class to have control and power over the lower class. - Alienation: Marx said that man does not have an immediate connection with his physical needs, unlike ani
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