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Political Science
Jeffrey Kopstein

Liberalism Ancient Liberalism o Participatory having the ability to participate in politics and govern yourself o Direct the point of democracy wasnt elections, you directly participated o Public not Private liberty The Greek concept of liberty was the freedom of the community, the freedom to govern themselves, not the freedom of individuals in the private life o Freedom of the community self government o Dependent upon a class of people who didnt engage in commerce or even work Because they had slaves, they had the time to participate in public politics o Big decisions were decisions of war Modern Liberalism o Not so much freedom to as freedom from o Legal protections o Limited government o Freedom is individual rather than communal o All driven by commerce and private property instead of war o Representative rather than direct government Our society is based on trade and commerce, not war www.notesolution.com The most useful thing for a state is to create stable and peaceful conditions to conduct trade Features of Liberalism Individualism: not family or clan Proceduralism: rule of law and bureaucracy Markets: economic and political Toleration: religious, ethnic, gender Stages of Liberalism Transformation (revolutionary or evolutionary break from monarchical rule) Consolidation (exclude those social elements that threaten the new order) Inclusion (include those elements that, if not included, will rebel against the order) The International System Sovereignty o We live in a system of states, a system where borders matter o It is these borders that demarcates nation-states and countries o These nation-states and countries are internally constituted (taxes, laws, military) o But sovereignty is also externally constituted, we live in a system of respecting each others borders Power www.notesolution.com
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