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Political Science
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Melissa Levin

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POL201 Reading Master CopyThanks to all who included their summaries You are all stars Good luck on all your examsJulia Joel 1994 The State in Society Model An Approach to Struggles for Domination In State Power and Social Forces Domination and Transformation in the Third World Eds J Migdal A Kohli and V Shue 735Statecentred approachesdominate after WWII acknowledge central role of stateit moulds patterns of domination but theres a tendency to regard states in fairly undifferentiated termsStates presented as holistic theres a misleading notion that states pull in single directions at key junctures in their histories some theorists even view the state as a unitary actor anthropomorphize the stateMigdal suggests breaking down of state and society and junctures between them refer to p9 understanding of how elements in each pull in different directions by doing thiswe refrain from oversimplificationHis main point p9 patterns of domination are determined by key struggles spread through societys multiple arenas of dominationopposition different responses from within the state mean that we cannot simply assume that as a whole it acts in a rational and coherent fashion Integrated domination the state as a whole establishes broad power and it acts in a coherent fashion numerous struggles may move a society toward this condition in some casesDispersed domination neither the state nor any other social force manages to achieve countrywide domination and parts of the state pull in different directions conflicts and complicities in multiple arenas lead to this conditionState and society have a mutually recursive relationships dont exist in isolationState p11 a set of organizations with arulemaking function monopoly of legitimate use of force Weber authority or domination new sort of public power which is impersonal and exercised through a complex set of institutional arrangements and offices but the state is not a fixed entitya changing set of goalsas it engages other social forces the state is transformed by its engagement with those forces also the state establishes peoples personal identities and aims to reshape their moral orders by symbolscodesRecent scholarship consistently overestimates state power and autonomy the focus has been on the very top leadership but it doesnt constitute an entire statethere are other elements refer to p16trenches dispersed field officesagencys central offices and commanding heightSociety p18 societys only definitive characteristic is that it is the outermost social structure for a certain group of individuals who view themselves as members and experience their identity as being determined by it presupposes the exercising of hegemony or societywide domination societies have been products of state formation no unifying framework social forces in society represent powerful mechanisms for associative behaviour social forces endeavour to impose themselves in an arena and prescribe their goals to others mobilize followers patterns of domination come as social forces they seek to manipulate key elements of an arenaStatesociety junctures p23 state and society have a mutually transforming relationship the formation of the state has created and activated society the meeting grounds between states and other social forces have been ones in which conflict and complicitycoalition and opposition have resolved the shape of countrywide socialpolitical change the struggles and accommodations in the junctures between the state and society have produced a range of outcomestotal transformation incorporation of existing social forces existing social forces incorporationof the state or total disengagementYoungCrawford 2004 The End of the PostColonial State in Africa Reflections on Changing African Political Dynamics African Affairs 103 2349I suggest closing the historical parentheses around the African post colonial state perhaps about 1990But by the 1980s a corrosive dynamic was visible weakening most states and by the 1990s eviscerating several The state crisis became manifest by 1990 in the radically altered international environment of the collapse of the Soviet Union and irresistible pressures for liberalization In developing this thesis I begin by identifying the essential legacy of the colonial state There follows a distillation of the core attributes of the post colonial state Its loss of ascendancy by the 1980s is examined leading to a conclusion that the 1990s and beyond are a sharply demarcated era in African politics Soldier figures as reflecting the robust authority the colonial state continued to hold in its decolonization phaseIntegral state eg Senegal unencumbered dominance over civil society by comprehensive instruments of social control through single party and administrative encadrement a pervasive security apparatus and a total monopoly on print and other mediaSuch a state in Africa in the 1970s gave the wouldbe integral state the appearance of unchallenged strength This was accompanied by an extravagant personalization of power exemplified by the rapturous encomium to Mobutu At the beginning of the 1980s the external diagnosis of an emerging African state crisis was essentially economic The influential l981 Berg Report of the World Bank set the tone with a naive faith that recovery could soon be achieved by abandonment of the statist economy in favour of marketbased reforms and exportoriented growth But by the end of the decade the exegesis of the postcolonial state condition led to more far reaching conclusions the malady afflicting Africa was not simply economic but more fundamentally political African recovery required not just the miracle of the marketplace but the blessings of democracy The now deeply enrooted structures of patrimonial autocracy were not reformable by economic tinkering the postcolonial state required political surgery in order to make a liberalized economy possibleAlthough the 1990s produced somewhat less disheartening economic trends than the 1980s and some countries like Uganda Ghana or Mozambique achieved respectable macroeconomic measures performance overall failed to vindicate the optimistic promises made for neoliberal policy prescriptions A number of analysts especially external commentators pointed to the incomplete and halfhearted implementation of reforms their sub version to entrenched patrimonial practice and the shrinkage of state capacityThe spread of civil conflict in Africa in the 1990s stood as metaphor for a weakened state internal wars persisted over extended time even in the absence of popular backing for the insurgents More than a quarter of African states experienced armed internal conflict during the decade and another quarter faced prolonged political crises and turbulenceWhither then the state which follows a discredited postcolonial regime The wave of internal wars signaled one type of outcome but other less negative itineraries were possible The interaction between the pressures of globalization the contradictory processes of state rebuilding and activated social forces may well be producing some new equilibriumone that is influenced by norms of constitutionalism and capitalism but falls far short of the theorized endpointCertainly survivals of the colonial legacy are still apparent especially in countries such as Cameroon Kenya or Gabon with a large measure of continuity there is no full erasure of the colonial and postcolonial experiences However these are progressively overwritten by new defining events political practices and agendas The tides of globalization wash over the continent depositing sedimentary layers of social exposure and economic impact The rise of significant diaspora populations from many countries produces novel forms of international linkage As these many processes work their way into institutional forms political patterns and social memory the explanatory power of the postcolonial label erodes In short the postcolonial moment appears to have passedDrze Jean and Amartya Sen 2002 Democratic Practice and Social Inequality in India This paper examines the role of democratic practice in contemporary India going beyond the
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