POL208 Midterm Study Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Lilach Gilady

POL208 Midterm Study Notes Mariela Libedinsky Realism & Liberalism The Battle of Antietam - 150 years old - 23000 casualties - Political and critical connection to images and pop culture The Need for Analytical Tools: Sylvie & Bruno - Building models for reality – social science - Lewis Carroll (text) In Search of an Analytical Knife - “cutting” reality to make it more manageable - Models omit dimension of reality - Models include implicit fundamental assumptions on what matters most - There is always more than 1 way, more than 1 way to cut a cake - Eg – maps are a model of reality Correlation vs. Causation - Theory o Description o Explanation o Prediction - The ability to falsify - IR is the relation between nations 30 Year War 1618-1648 - The Pope – Holy Roman Empire - French & Swedish king – underground rule - Protestant conversion created turmoil - Ferdinand II – “elected” new emperor The Defenestration of Prague 1618 - Defenestration = to throw someone out a window - 50% of population lost in 30 years - Peace of Westphalia – he who rules chooses the religion - Augsuburg 1555 – Treaty in 1648 o With all manner of jurisdiction and sovereignty, without any contradiction from the emperor, the empire, house of Austria or any other o 1 time sovereignty is legally addressed in political law – led to construction of political maps Sovereignty: What does it mean in Practice? - A people, a territory, a bureaucracy, the king (authority) as a legal entity - Monopoly over the functions of the state in a defined territory, excluding all external intervention (over the legitimate use of force) - The right to conduct foreign relations and sign treaties - Sovereign equality - Internal and external sovereignty (including/excluding internal/external intervention) Sovereignty and the UN - Non-intervention – not challenge but to protect - Equality – reflects and mirrors principles - Does not go above states but between them Contested Sovereignty - Where sovereignty (internal or external) is contested = trouble - Contestation from inside = failed states and civil wars (think congo, yugoslavia, Somalia etc) - Contestation from outside = no recognition (think Taiwan, Afghanistan) - Contestation over borders (arab/israel conflict) The Westphalian System – A myth? - Independence, non-intervention, equality, internal and external sovereignty, territory, population, bureaucracy - Living in a westphalian word o This structure affects the conduct of IR o How will nation-states react to crisis? o Assumptions – the nature of units (human nature), interest of units, nature of structure (anarchy), distribution of capabilities, nature of crisis - See: Zombieland - A group of theories that shares fundamental assumptions – paradigm Realism – the realist A-Team - Bismak – realpolitik - The politics of reality: based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations - Conservative: minimalistic/expansionist, militaristic - Unholy alliances - In accordance to foreign policy – E.H Carr 20 years Crisis 1919-1939 o Dichotomy of foreign policy: idealism and realism o Coined realism as we know it Recap - Different –isms - Paradigms which compete: models - Important questions: threats, cooperation, actors, change - Realism - E.H Carr – vulnerability of the world against Germany, led to WW2 Thomas Hobbes - English 1588-1679 - Thucydides, Paloponnesian war translator - Worked with geometry and the works of Galileo Leviathan 1651 - The state of nature: a “war of every man against every man” life is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” - The state is the solution The Logic of Hobbes’ Argument - Man is a selfish hedonist: “of the voluntary acts of every man, the object is some good to himself” - All people are equal, rational and possessing a passionate love of survival (right of nature)  this may be violated - A person’s right of nature justifies violence against everybody else - In the interest of personal survival, people will come around to agreeing that they should renounce their right to use violence – no one to enforce this - This is an unstable equilibrium - The creation of the Leviathan enforces stability, citizens give up their independence to buy stability - Leviathan gets ultimate authority and monopoly over the use of violence - Morality, justice, property are social constructs imposed by the state and exist only so long as the state is strong enough to impose them – maintaining stability - Essence of the state = leviathan - Law is dependent on power – “legal positivism” - Justice is whatever the law says it is - An “unjust law” is an oxymoron! The Bull: Domestic Analogy - Offensive and defensive realism - Hobbes + IR = the international system is in a Hobbesian state of nature, individual = state, unitary actor - Anarchy = without a leader, the absence of higher governing authority beyond the state: no world government - Anarchy does not mean chaos/lack of order - Westphalia, sovereign equality established anarchy - Survival, self-help, self-interest, constant potential for violence - Thin cooperation – in realism we cannot trust anyone but ourselves - Very limited potential for cooperation – fear of defection - No leviathan = no room for moral considerations - Survival and self-interest are more important under anarchy The Security Dilemma - Time 1: constant fear and insecurity – “counter force with force or be ready to pay the cost of weakness” WALTZ - Time 2: Actor A resorts to weapons, defensive wall, allies in order to increase security (this makes Actor B insecure) - Time 2: Actor B fears A, forces to invest in the same measures A started with - Time 3: Actor B also reaches for means of security - The Dilemma: how can we increase our security without threatening others  arms race th Thucydides – 5 century BC - Athenian in Spartan war - Realist believe that the rules of IR are constant - Things that don’t change: human nature, the structure of government - The Peloponnesian war began due to Athens erecting a wall around its city The Malian Dialogue - Athens gives the island of Melos a choice to give them their ports /land or surrender/die - “the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept” - The strong do what they want, the weak do what they must - If you abuse power (as Athens did) then you will lose (as Sparta won) Niccolo Machiavelli 1489-1527 - “The Prince”, discourses – banned from the Catholic Church - Politics has its own laws - He was a realist, understanding human nature is key for understanding politics - Humans are evil and selfish, determination/power prevails over reason - The sole aim of a Prince is to seek power, regardless of religion or ethical considerations - Church & State – divided: “it is better to be feared than loved” the end justifies the means Modern Realism - Hans J. Morgenthau - Politics among the nations – 1948 - Power is the most important element of IR Power Politics - What is power? Morgenthau says: “man’s control over the minds and actions of another man” - A gets B to do something they would not otherwise do - How do we measure this? By physical representations of force (military) - Power is a relative term, power is dynamic Neorealism - Kenneth Waltz, “Theory of International Politics” 1979 - Modernizing Morgenthau, other political scientists make assumptions about human nature - Waltz tries to determine international politics on a scientific/factual basis - The implications of anarchy – it is what differentiates the international from the domestic - The distribution of power is not constant - World systems level of analysis Unipolarity - 1 great power, lots of other smaller powers Bipolarity - 2 great powers, each with a collection of allies Multipolarity - Many great powers, no leader – this can evolve to bipolarity Realism – Summary - IR is objective, events are governed by universal laws - The most important actor is the State - The international system is anarchic - States seek to maximize security/power, national interest - Distribution of power is imperative for understanding IR - The potential for violence is always present - We should focus on what is not what ought to be - Skepticism: constant > progress Liberalism in IR - John Locke 1632-1704 - Replied to Hobbes Social Contract - State of nature – anarchy – but not “war of every man against ever man” – still unstable - The state as a solution, protecting natural rights o Life o Liberty o Property - Promoting general wellbeing, the state loses its legitimacy if it fails to do so – it is revocable - The individual still matters! - Dilemma: how can we aggregate the preferences of all individuals into a system that would reflect their will, protect out safety but not have enough power to take away our rights – become the Leviathan Solution - We need to build the right institutions! Critical Approaches The Liberal Solution – liberalism vs. realism - State of nature – not as bleak - Domestic analogy: institutions solve the problem of anarchy - The quality of institutions affect the stability of the solution - Domestic structures matter, institutions matter (see: billiard ball example) - Rights exists independent of power (life, liberty, property) - Progress is possible Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 - On ‘Perpetual Peace’ `794 (not a realist writer) - Never really experienced war, rejects the possibility of separation between the moral imperative and the political realm (Machiavelli’s ‘Prince’) - Following self -interest will lead to a “perpetual peace in the vast grace that swallows both atrocities and their perpetrators.” - There is an unavoidable trajectory – historical progress towards world federation – but we have the obligation as rational human beings to speed the process - To reach peace “the civil constitution of every state should be republican” not the party, generally democratic and conservative, the domestic institutions are democratic and stable - A world federation should be established - Economic and social interaction across borders should be encouraged – then no one will want to go to war - None of the above are sufficient on their own, modern reading of the “Kantian Peace” democracy, trade and international organization (Kant being an optimist) Adam Smith – “The Wealth of Nations” 1776 st - 1 real text on economics and peace - Laissez-faire: minimal governmental intervention in economic affairs - Humans are rational profit maximizers - Trade generates benefit and profit - War will erode the benefits of trade, ergo, trade creates interest in peace and rejects war - More trade leads to less war (this is a liberal argument) The Wilsonian Moment – Jan 8 1918 - E.H Carr coined the term “realism” – Wilson is Carr’s poster child - Wilson’s Fourteen Points o “absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas” – trade o “the removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions” o Self-determination: “a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions…” (rejecting imperialism) - Collective security “a general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose”  league of nations - These are in prospect of world order following WW1 Neoliberalism - Building more modern scientific theory: liberalism - Robert Kohane - Can we think of a structural condition that would induce cooperation? Regardless of human nature, morality, natural rights  institutions, institutional realism Absolute vs. Relative Gains - 1 Distribution: A:5, B:5 - 2 Distribution: A:4, B:3 (realist) rd - 3 Distribution: A:6, B:7 (liberal) Liberalism - Actors are rational and act in self-interest - Private interest doesn’t contradict collective interest - Avoid conflict if affects prosperity (absolute gains) - The collective will is rational and prudent; narrow interest can distort these tendencies - Our interests are shaped and constrained by institutions - Good: democracy, international organizations - Bad: military, industrial complex, oil industry 2 Peas in a Pod - Realism and liberalism are the mainstream of IR - Accept rues of game, don’t challenge current structure, view actors as ration - Marxism, constructivism, feminism, post modernism, critical theory Marxist Theory of Imperialism - Assumptions: actors are class-based, capitalist system (make money, future profits) Logic of the Argument - Capitalism is not sustainable o Capitalists get rich o Invest in more machinery/labor saving devices o Results in increased capital profit o Fewer workers needed (unemployment and falling wages) o Less demand for goods, hence need to make them cheaper o More investment, the cycle repeats to step 2 Revolution - The rich get rich and the poor stay poor - Organization by class, working class will revolt The Connection - Marx was wrong since there have been few revolutions - Lenin and Hobson: imperialism explains the lack of revolutions (Marx assumes a closed market) - Imperialism leads to war – class is the problem rather than anarchy/nation state - The main unit of analysis is therefore class, the state is controlled by capital and serves its interests - Conflict over markets, imperialism diversionary wars, collusion of capitalist classes, underdevelopment and dependency (in a Marxist view) Neo-Marxism: World System - Immanuel Wallerstein - Holistic view:analysis based on systematic production processes and class relations - Capitalism (the rise and fall) o Long-term processes – historical perspective Core vs. Periphery - A powerful and wealthy core dominates and exploits a weak and poor periphery, this hierarchy is actually stable Semi-periphery - Intermediate layer of countries that combine features at both core and periphery – instrumental for preserving the system (Ex Indonesia, Asia, Brazil, Mexico, India, Turkey) - The end of the Cold War signals the demise of the capitalism world economy – US expansionism is a reflection of its decline – there will soon be nowhere else to go, no one else to exploit and nothing else to invest in Constructivism - Challenges the way we think about social science - Social science deals with the social beings requiring a social theory Material vs. Social - Money is a social construct - Social facts give meaning to physical facts (see: what is money?) - The material facts are secondary to the social meaning attributed to them (see: borders) - Institutions o A set of customs, practices, relationships or behavioural patterns of importance in the life of a community or society; institutions are the rules of the game, the norms that regulate behaviour, they define the social constraints and opportunities that actors face - Family, marriage, lecture, border, sovereignty, war - Alexander Wendt o Focus on the above, meanings are inter-subjective (you know that I know that you know), they are understood by group members, they help regulate and produce behaviour patterns, in turn they are reproduced by those behavioural patterns (like an inside joke!) o Identities, norms and social institutions are the main units of analysis Rational Choice - Nobel Peace Prize won by the European Union - Over-determination  peace: NATO, EU, democracy, nuclear deterrence Constructivism - Alexander Wendt o Focus on the social meaning of material factors o These are inter-subjective! Anarchy is What the States Make of It - Implications of anarchy are not straightforward - State of nature – ‘self-help’ is an institution - Identity , interaction, signals and interpretation, effects of predation The Origin of the National Interest - How do we ‘discover’ our interests? - Consequences/gains (realism/liberalism) vs. appropriateness/acceptance (constructivism) - Constructivists: identity and social institutions define our interests - Constructivism can lead to realism or liberalism prediction – a different way of understanding the world - The social work is constantly changing and being reproduces - Identities and norms are relatively stable – slow change - Analyzing patterns of behaviour rather than specific events - Theory for the origin of preferences and interests Feminism in IR - This is a relatively new field, not very involved in military - What contributions does the international system have for the marginalization of women? And vice versa Women are from Venus - Questions of who is more peaceful, competing for manliness, tokenism - This is a level of analysis - Sex strikes – think Lysistrada Debates within the Feminist Camp - Liberal approaches (women vote )  affirmative action  radical approaches (institutions_ Women and War - Should women be part of the armed forces? - The myth of protection - Sharp increase in cases of map rape as a tool of war - Gender gap still exists Women/Feminist theories in IR - Ann Tickner - Empiricism: the gender gap – women in war - Critique: still using a male dominated system of knowledge - The scientific method itself is not gender neutral: linearity and analysis - The domestic/international distinction in IR theory reflects the domestic/public dichotomy in society - Breaking these distinctions – breaking levels of analysis – everything is one system - See: Black Box - Violence is not only war; focus on violence against women - The personal = political, need to expose hidden power relationships Rational Choice: What is Rationality? - Based on all available actions, the actor has a clear ordering of preferences aver all possible outcomes - A problem: all the options, outcomes one must be chosen - Find the one with the most utility and least cost - The actor will choose a policy which leads to an outcome that offers maximum utility with minimal cost – what are the preferences for the actors? - No moral or normative judgement – this only describes the process of decision-making, not the
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