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University of Toronto St. George
Political Science
Michael Stein

POL328 Notes Politics and Government in South Asia September 17, 2013 Lecture 2 Colonial Legacies Colonialism is very evident in South Asia. The political legacies of colonialism have shaped the region. -Shri Lanka took a bit of a different direction. The focus of this lecture will be on British colonialism. History of Colonialism: Key Legacies: -Ideas and education -State and institution -Economic inheritance -Political representation and electoral experience -Nationalism Partition (the partition of Pakistan from India). The extent of violence, etc. The British were in India for about 200 years. The British East India Company was created in 1600. But the real political control of India began in 1757, when they won a key battle in India, winning the province of Bengal. You can divide British colonialism into two separate legacies. The fist was “Company Rule” and the second was “Crown Rule”. The second period, from 1858 on was when the British crown officially took over rule of India. What did India look like before the British showed up? -India was very politically fragmented in the 1500s. Between 10-15AD India was marked by constant invasions and immigration. Mughal India -Political consolidation -Agrarian bureaucracy -Degree of political sophistication- legal systems- armed forces- tax extraction -Weak impulse towards modernity. The Mughals was not moving towards what we would think of as a modern state as others were from the industrial revolution elsewhere. The height of this empire was before British control. The British were not the only ones with colonial control. The Dutch and French also had colonies, but the British took majority control after defeating the French. Because the British industrial revolution was in such a rising situation, they needed places like India to help with their production. The territory the British took was a gradual process. It took place over a 90-100 year period. This meant that institutions of the state had to govern these states. What we see then is the British beginning to centralizing political organization. -Establishment of state apparatus -Centralized political administration by civil servants. Parlimentary supervision of Company activities. The British crown began taking control over the East India Company. -The recruitment into the army grows significantly. Aspects of Indirect Rule: -they were areas of India that were under indirect control of the British. In these areas local princes were still in charge of much of the domestic affairs. -there were varieties of arrangements with traditional elite. The B
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