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study notes for lecture nine: growth control of hormones

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Department
Physiology
Course Code
PSL201Y1
Professor
Doug Mac Kay

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LECTURE NINE: GROWTH CONTROL OF HORMONES
*growth {takes place during development} is different from remodelling {takes place constantly}
BONE GROWTH
STAGE
Mechanism
Other Considerations
1
- chondrocytes form a growth plate
chondrocytes are collagen producing cells of cartilage
2
- osteoblasts differentiate at the site of growth plate to start
ossification
ossification is activated by osteoblast differentiation
growth is dependent on:
Ædiet (malnutrition leads to a reduction of growth) Ægenetics
Æclassical hormones and growth factors
::growth hormone, thyroid hormone, insulin {are needed to activate
endocrine system and stimulate growth}
::sex steroids
::cortisol
::insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)
Ægrowth hormone stimulates bone growth via direct and indirect binding
::indirect stimulation
Æbind to liver and trigger the release of IGF-1 {made from the liver}
ÆIGF-1 acts at matrix level recruiting chondrocytes
Æfavours chondrocytes proliferation
Æresults in proliferation of the matrix
Æosteoblasts will come and initiate ossification
::direct stimulation
Æbinding at the bone matrix
Ærecruits chondrocytes to the site of GH binding
Æleads to proliferation of chondrocytes
Æresults in enhancement of matrix growth
*chondrocytes result in increased (recruitment, proliferation, matrix)
Ægrowth hormone stimulates bone remodelling via direct and indirect binding of IGF-1
Æremodelling occurs every ~100 days
Æinvolves osteoClasts and osteoblasts
((bone remodelling))
Æfirst: recruitment of osteoclasts to site for matrix resorption/bone engulfment to create cavities
Ænext: recruitment of osteoblasts to proliferate and replace bone matrix {chewed up by osteoclasts}
\ÆGH and IGF-1 can directly recruit osteoblasts for bone replacement
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Description
LECTURE NINE: GROWTH CONTROL OF HORMONES *growth {takes place during development} is different from remodelling {takes place constantly} BONE GROWTH STAGE Mechanism Other Considerations 1 - chondrocytes form a growth plate chondrocytes are collagen producing cells of cartilage 2 - osteoblasts differentiate at the site of growth plate to start ossification is activated by osteoblast differentiation ossification growth is dependent on: diet (malnutrition leads to a reduction of growth) genetics classical hormones and growth factors ::growth hormone, thyroid hormone, insulin {are needed to activate ::cortisol endocrine system and stimulate growth} ::insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) ::sex steroids growth hormone stimulates bone growth via direct and indirect binding ::indirect stimulation ::direct stimulation bind to liver and trigger the release of IGF-1 {made from the liver} binding at the bone matrix IGF-1 acts at matrix level recruiting chondrocytes recruits chondrocytes to the site of GH binding favours chondrocytes proliferation leads to proliferation of chondrocytes results in proliferation of the matrix results in enhancement of matrix growth osteoblasts will come and initiate ossification *chondrocytes result in increased (recruitment, proliferation, matrix) growth hormone stimulates bone remodelling via direct and indirect binding of IGF-1 remodelling occurs every ~100 days involves osteoClasts and osteoblasts ((bone remodelling)) first: recruitment of osteoclasts to site for matrix resorptionbone engulfment to create cavities next: recruitment of osteoblasts to proliferate and replace bone matrix {chewed up by osteoclasts} GH and IGF-1 can directly recruit osteoblasts for bone replacement www.notesolution.com
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