PSY100H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 96 pages long!)

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PSY100H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1 Notes September 12
Research methods are the base of psychology
Empiricism and scientific method:
The view that knowledge comes from observed/sensory experience
Everything we know comes from experience
Empirical evidence refers to the data that has been collected by scientific observation
Contrast with some other non-scientific ways of forming beliefs about the world
intuition /gut feelings
Authority
Cultural consensus/acceptance
Logic
The Story of Clever Hans (the horse)
Late 1800’s early 1900’s
Horse could answer questions using his hooves
He could read cues in the faces of people asking the questions
Oscar Funk realized that the horse could read the right answer if the person
asking the question knew the answer
Reactivity or the Hawthorne effect
People react to knowing that they are being observed
Hawthorne factories were trying to figure out how to increase their productivity
and it turns out they just had to tell the workers that they were being watched
Demand characteristics: the participants and the experimenter don’t know the conditions
of the experiment, no bias, to make sure everyone is being treated the same, limited
interaction sometimes
Importance of considering plausible alternatives and ruling them out
Have critical skepticism to headlines of certain studies
Don’t always believe what you read, there needs to be scientific evidence
The Scientific Methods as an Ongoing Process:
Refine, alter, expand, or reject hypothesis
Develop testable predictions
Gather data or test predictions
Develop general theories
Make observations
Think of interesting questions
Formulate hypothesis
OR
Identify the problem
Gather info
Hypothesis
Design and conduct experiment
Data analysis and conclusions
Restart process/change hypothesis based on results
Role of theory
Scientific theories typically explain the relationship between two or more variables
Sitting on a mountain of data
Explanatory and predictive
Use theory to generate testable hypothesis
Scientific Theories
Must be testable: using currently available techniques
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Must be falsifiable: has to be possible to go out and mae observation that would falsify
that theory
Must be parsimonious: simplest is best, go with theory that offers good explanation,
data, hypothesis
Short and simple
Examples of psychological theories
Intergroup contact theory: if we improve positive interactions between outgroup and
ingroup, then we can improve relations and reduce prejudice (Pettigrew)
Social comparison theory: when objective measures are not available, we will compare
ourselves to other people (Festinger)
Social learning theory: people can learn by observing other people (Bandura)
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