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Lecture 7 - Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test - November 8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY201H1
Professor
Kristie Dukewich

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November 8, 2012.
Lecture 7 - Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test
Interpreting Binomial Distribution
The probability of something is never zero but rather lowest possible probability will
always be <0.0001
Using the table
o If we let P represent students and Q represent non-students
o p(P) = .75 but that is not listed on the table
o so therefore find p(Q) which = .25
What is a sampling distribution?
Matched to a statistic
o E.g. sum of, mean, correlation, etc.
All possible values a statistic can take
Probability of getting each value if only chance is operating
Some outcomes are more likely to happen just by chance alone
In our study, we want to rule out chance… we want to find something real.
Binomial distribution is modeling chance to fact.
The Sign Test: Using the Binomial Distribution to Calculate
Summarizing and filtering out chance allows to draw broader conclusions about hypotheses
Ruling out chance
o Design a study to test a hypothesis
o Gather data
o Analyze data with appropriate test
o Draw conclusions about hypothesis
Gathering Data
o Step 1:
Each participant comes in casual clothes
Basic trivia test (0-12)
o Step 2:
Come in business attire
Basic trivia test (0-12)
Step one and two are counterbalanced to make sure order doesn’t matter
Tests are designed to be equally hard (standardized)
Repeated Measures Design
o Paired scores in the conditions, difference between paired scores are analyzed
o Research question: Does wearing authoritative clothing improve test performance?
o Casual clothing vs. business attire
For Every Study, Two Hypotheses
Null Hypothesis
o H0 or “H naught
o NO effect of IV on DV in the population
o H0 = Wearing business attire does not change test performance
o H0 = Wearing business attire causes no change or a decrease in test performance

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Description
November 8, 2012. Lecture 7 - Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test Interpreting Binomial Distribution  The probability of something is never zero but rather lowest possible probability will always be <0.0001  Using the table o If we let P represent students and Q represent non-students o p(P) = .75 but that is not listed on the table o so therefore find p(Q) which = .25 What is a sampling distribution?  Matched to a statistic o E.g. sum of, mean, correlation, etc.  All possible values a statistic can take  Probability of getting each value if only chance is operating  Some outcomes are more likely to happen just by chance alone  In our study, we want to rule out chance… we want to find something real.  Binomial distribution is modeling chance to fact. The Sign Test: Using the Binomial Distribution to Calculate  Summarizing and filtering out chance allows to draw broader conclusions about hypotheses  Ruling out chance o Design a study to test a hypothesis o Gather data o Analyze data with appropriate test o Draw conclusions about hypothesis  Gathering Data o Step 1:  Each participant comes in casual clothes  Basic trivia test (0-12) o Step 2:  Come in business attire  Basic trivia test (0-12)  Step one and two are counterbalanced to make sure order doesn’t matter  Tests are designed to be equally hard (standardized)  Repeated Measures Design o Paired scores in the conditions, difference between paired scores are analyzed o Research question: Does wearing authoritative clothing improve test performance? o Casual clothing vs. business attire For Every Study, Two Hypotheses  Null Hypothesis o H 0r “H naught” o NO eff
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