Department

Psychology

Course Code

PSY201H1

Professor

Kristie Dukewich

November 8, 2012.

Lecture 7 - Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test

Interpreting Binomial Distribution

The probability of something is never zero but rather lowest possible probability will

always be <0.0001

Using the table

o If we let P represent students and Q represent non-students

o p(P) = .75 but that is not listed on the table

o so therefore find p(Q) which = .25

What is a sampling distribution?

Matched to a statistic

o E.g. sum of, mean, correlation, etc.

All possible values a statistic can take

Probability of getting each value if only chance is operating

Some outcomes are more likely to happen just by chance alone

In our study, we want to rule out chance… we want to find something real.

Binomial distribution is modeling chance to fact.

The Sign Test: Using the Binomial Distribution to Calculate

Summarizing and filtering out chance allows to draw broader conclusions about hypotheses

Ruling out chance

o Design a study to test a hypothesis

o Gather data

o Analyze data with appropriate test

o Draw conclusions about hypothesis

Gathering Data

o Step 1:

Each participant comes in casual clothes

Basic trivia test (0-12)

o Step 2:

Come in business attire

Basic trivia test (0-12)

Step one and two are counterbalanced to make sure order doesn’t matter

Tests are designed to be equally hard (standardized)

Repeated Measures Design

o Paired scores in the conditions, difference between paired scores are analyzed

o Research question: Does wearing authoritative clothing improve test performance?

o Casual clothing vs. business attire

For Every Study, Two Hypotheses

Null Hypothesis

o H0 or “H naught”

o NO effect of IV on DV in the population

o H0 = Wearing business attire does not change test performance

o H0 = Wearing business attire causes no change or a decrease in test performance

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