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PSY210H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Adolescent Sexuality, Premarital Sex, Bulimia Nervosa


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY210H1
Professor
Adam Dube
Study Guide
Midterm

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Sebastián Salomón Ballada 1
PSY 210: Human Development
A D O L E S C E N C E
Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence
(Week 7)
Outline
What is adolescence?
Changing bodies, changing minds
Puberty, more than a physical change?
Development of abstract reasoning
A scientific mind
Adolescents + School = ???
What is adolescence?
Adolescence is the period extending from the onset of puberty to early
adulthood (between ages 12 to 20)
oPuberty is the time when the reproductive system matures
Adolescence: a brief history
Adolescence in Ancient Times –
oPlato: adolescence is the third distinct stage in life
Serious education can begin
oAristotle: children are driven by impulses
Only by the end of adolescence does _________________________
Adolescence from early Christian times through the Middle Ages –
oSaint Augustine: lived an impulsive, excessive lifestyle until his conversion to
Christianity
Argued that Christian morality provides the means by which reason can rule
over passion
oChildren’s Crusades: evidence that adolescence was viewed as a period of
innocence
Adolescence from 1500 to 1890 –
oLife cycle service: a period in the late teens and twenties in which young people
would engage in domestic service, farm service, or apprenticeships in various
trades and crafts – as the industry took over jobs, this was no longer a viable option
o18th – 19th century: young people were seen as a social problem
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Sebastián Salomón Ballada 2
In response, social institutions were created
The Age of Adolescence (1890 to 1920) –
oTermed as such for 3 reasons:
1. Enactment of laws restricting child labour
2. New requirements for children to attend secondary school
3. Development of the field of adolescence as an area of scholarly study
G. Stanley Hall
Started the child study degree in developmental psychology
Theory of Recapitulation
oDevelopment of each person re-experiences evolutionary past (based on Darwin’s
theory)
oUpheaval in our evolutionary development; see adolescence as heighted emotions
and stress
oReferred to adolescence as a time of “storm and stress”
In contrast, most adolescents experience healthy social and emotional development
Changing bodies, changing minds
Physical Development
Early 11-12 to 14 years Rapid pubertal change
Middle 14 to 16 years Puberty nearly complete
Late 16 to 18 years Full adult appearance; anticipation of adult roles
Puberty is the average age at which reproductive systems mature
The endocrine system consists of glands in various parts of the body that releases
hormones into the blood stream, which affect development
Path of puberty:
oHypothalamus  Pituitary gland and Gonadotropin  Gonads and Sex hormones
Hormonal changes in puberty:
oGrowth hormone and thyroxin increases around age 8-9
oEstrogens
More in girls
Adrenal estrogens
oAndrogens
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Sebastián Salomón Ballada 3
More in boys
Testosterone
Physical growth occurs as a result of increased levels of sex hormones, there is a drastic
change in the rate of physical growth
oAdolescent growth spurt
Peak height velocity: 9cm/yr during adolescence
* Girls hit growth spurt before boys, because estrogen is a faster acting
hormone – later growth spurts last longer
oAsynchronicity
Sex differences in body growth in adolescence
Sexual Maturation
Primary sexual characteristics
oMaturation of the reproductive organs
Girls: menarche (first menstruation)
Boys: spermarche (first ejaculation)
Secondary sexual characteristics
oOther visible parts of the body that signal sexual maturity
Girls: breasts
Boys: facial hair, voice change
Both: underarm hair
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