Study guide for Term Test 3

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15 Jan 2011
Exam 3 Prep
Cognitive approach
George Kelly
Presbyterian minister father; one-room secondary; entered navy in WW2 ->
clinical psych at Ohio State Univ
Constructive alternativism (everyone = scientist); predictable aspect
At least 3 elements in t he construct
Not necessary to be na med; personal
Fundamental postulate: psychologically channeled (directed or deter mined)
11 corollaries: construction, individuality, organization, dichotomy, choice,
range, experience, modulation, fragmentation, com m onality, sociality
Anxiety: recognition that events happen outside t he range of ones construct
Guilt: perception of ones apparent dislodgement from his core role structure
Aggression: active elaboration of ones perceptual field = assertiveness /
Disorder: therapist cant predict (consistent invalidation of constructs)
Therapy: reconstruction > psychotherapy
Slot movement (superficial)
Fixed role: self-characterization sketch -> fixed role for some period of time
1.Validation: compatibility btw predictions and observation of outcome (both
are subjectively constructed)
2.Philosophical stance
3.Better known in Europe / England
4. Industrial organizational psych, management psych etc (workplace)
5.Criticism: ignored the full range of human personality to do justice to the
human intellect = being too intellectual, fail to deal human emotions
6.Praised: model of uniqueness vs. universality, forerunner of modern social
Nancy Cantor & John Kihlstrom
Process-oriented terms (schema, goal, strategies) > descriptive terms
Schema: general (about world) vs. specific (about yourself); change by
Goal: general vs. specific (ability shif t flexibly is important)
Strategies: connect actions to goals
Carol Dweck
Performance goals (prove compe tence) vs. learning goal (mastery-oriented)
Entity theories (fixed) vs. incremental t heories (malleable)
Albert Ellis
Semi-orphaned; analyzed at Horneys institute; self-help books
4 fundamental processes: perception, movement, thinking, emotion (evaluative
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ABC (activating event; belief system; emotional consequences)
Depressed & anxious = because of irrational (dysfunctional) beliefs
Musturbatory belief systems (absolute musts)
Cognitive t herapy: should separate from shoulds and musts = accept reality
Emphasizes on biological aspects of human personality
Emotive-evocative therapy: role-playing, psychodrama, humor, unconditional
Behavioral therapy: deliberate failing at small tasks; desensitization (gradual or
Video: early version of cognitive counseling; get rid of irrational thoughts!;
leaning back style (distance with client); very direct; stop focusing on negatives
REBT adopts more universalist & individualistic position = > contribution to
study of cultural diversity
Recently, incorporated into educational rather than primarily t herapeutic
Edmund Husserl
Father of phenomenology
Kant: nou mena (what something is in itself) vs. phenomena (sensory knowledge)
Intersubjectivity: understand through subjective points of view
Need new language of description & new method of scientific investigation
Not introspection (= real or noumenal)
Phenomenology: focuses on the essence of meaning, not noumenal (=field of
experience); clarify how we become conscious of related events; transcendental
(able to reflexively study their own mind as a process)
Otto Rank
Freuds most talented coworker; not a physician; to be independent person
Social work: promoted functional school (opposed to diagnostic school)
Short-term therapy; help exert ones own will (= > diagnostic is secondary)
Purpose of therapy: no jargon, spontaneity and uniqueness
Central problem of a neurotic: dependent person will enter by submitting to the
will of the therapist; = > resistance = successful
Set termination date (rebirth); person continuously creates own reality
Abraham Maslow
Target of anti-Semitism, Alone at home, but good uncle; started in behaviorism
but gave up; focused on positive sides of people
Self-actualization (includes innocence): 4 characteristics = > not perfection,
higher level of functioning (some people can be healthier than environment)
Human motivations: Hierarchy of needs:
1.physiological orderly, stable, predictable world
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3.belonging and love: getting difficult due to tech development
4.self-estee m: need for respect from others and self-respect, if not met,
5.self-actualization: courage to choose, unique, highest potentials
6.Knowledge (prior to understand) vs. understanding
1.Efficient and accurate perception of reality
2.Continued freshness of appreciation without preconceptions
3.Tendency to have peak experiences
4.Clear ethical standards but not necessarily conventional ones
1.Philosophical sense of humor (shared human pretensions)
2.Deep feeling of kinship with all humanity
3.Selective and deep interpersonal relationship with small intimates
4.Democratic character accepting all people
1.Detachment and need for privacy
2.Autono mous and independent of culture and environ ment
3.Creativeness characterizing whatever they do
4.Spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness
1.Problem centered
2.Acceptance of self, others, and nature for what they are
3.Resistance to cultural conformity
Imperfections: unexpected ruthlessness; occasional absentmindedness; over
kindliness; non-neurotic guilt anxiety
Peak experiences (moment of self-actualization): consciousness, memory,
identity, perception of environ ment, time/space perception
PE cant be built by yourself: occur without conscious, intention, planning, will
D-needs and B-needs ( metamotivation)
Theory assessment:
1.Points toward broader outlines of philosophy
2.Lacks the rigor and scientific methodology
3.Today: Self-deter mination theory (SDT) by Deci and Ryan = > people are
active organisms with innate tendencies to fulfill their potential and rise
above challenges, by lab experiemtns and field studies
4.Critics: too individualistic and male, neglect hard work and pain involved
in growth and phenomenon of tragedy, based on American values (in East,
ppl perceive the mselves in terms of groups), gender difference
(women =interpersonal based / men = personal accomplishment), the need
hierarchy (= > other cultures, look at diverse ways that people
5.Believed that he brought all major religions under psychology
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