Psy240 all lectures.pdf

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14 Nov 2012
School
Department
Course
Professor
Lec 1 12-04-18 1:08 PM
Psychopathology
study of abnormal psychology
people who suffer mental, emotional physical pain
o as result of form psychological/mental disorder
criteria of abnormal:
o unusualness of behavior
! statistical infrequency (IQ<70 = mental retardation)
! unconventional behaviour (violates norms)
o discomfort/distress of person
o presence of mental illness
! clear identifiable physical process that differs from health
& leads to specific symptoms
o maladaptiveness of behaviour
! cause people to suffer distress/prevent daily functioning
o unexpectedness
Theories & therapies
Biological:
o Theories:
! Structural: physical trauma leading to psychological
problems
! Neurotransmitter: too little/much of neurotranismitter in
synaptic cleft
! Genetics
o Treatments:
! Drugs: antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers,
anti-anxiety medication
! Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
! Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
Psychological approach (freud & Psychoanalytic):
o Theories:
! Unconscious drives: ID, Ego, Superego
! Insight into real concern
o Therapy (Psychoanalytic):
! Explore unconscious conflicts
" Free association
" Explore sources of resistance
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" Transference
" Dream analysis
Behavioural
o Theories:
! Effects of reinforcements & punishment on behaviour
" classical & operant conditioning
o Therapy:
! Exposure-based therapy
" Systematic desensitization, modeling, flooding
Social structure theories:
o Theories:
! Roles society plays in development of psychological
disorder
Cognitive Therapy:
o Social skill training
o Not relying on others for social worth
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy:
o Systematic desensitization
o Interoceptive exposure
o Confront situation/thought, challenge & change
Neurotransmitters:
Dopamine: experience of reinforcement/rewards
o Novelty-seeking
Serotonin: regulates emotion, harm avoidance
o Low:
! Aggressive, impulsive
Norepinephrine: low leves -> depressed
o Reward dependent
GABA: anxiety symptoms
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Lec 2 Assessment & Anxiety Disorder 12-04-18 1:08 PM
Assessment:
process of gathering info about people’s symptoms & possible
causes for symptoms
factors:
o symptoms & history
! current symptoms: severity & chronicity
! ability to function
! recent events causing onset of symptoms
! history of psychological problems
! family history of disorder
o psychological & neurological factors:
! medical conditions:
" causing psychological symptoms
! drugs:
" induce psychological symptoms
! cognitive functioning & intellectual ability
o sociocultural background:
! number of friends, family – quality of relationships
! sociocultural background: ties to culture raised in
! acculturation
" extent to which person identifies w/ his/her group
of origin & its culture or w/ dominant mainstream
culture
methods:
o interviews:
! clinical (unstructured):
" open ended question to obtain nonverbal
indicators
! structured:
" question from concrete criteria about symptoms
experiencing
o psychological tests:
! personality, projective personality
! cognitive, intelligence
! family function
o observation:
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Document Summary

12-04-18 1:08 pm: study of abnormal psychology, people who suffer mental, emotional physical pain, as result of form psychological/mental disorder, criteria of abnormal, unusualness of behavior. Unconventional behaviour (violates norms: discomfort/distress of person, presence of mental illness. Clear identifiable physical process that differs from health. & leads to specific symptoms: maladaptiveness of behaviour. Cause people to suffer distress/prevent daily functioning: unexpectedness. Structural: physical trauma leading to psychological problems. Neurotransmitter: too little/much of neurotranismitter in synaptic cleft. Drugs: antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anti-anxiety medication. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rtms: psychological approach (freud & psychoanalytic), theories: Effects of reinforcements & punishment on behaviour. Systematic desensitization, modeling, flooding: social structure theories, theories: Roles society plays in development of psychological disorder: cognitive therapy, social skill training, not relying on others for social worth, cognitive behavioural therapy, systematic desensitization, interoceptive exposure, confront situation/thought, challenge & change. Neurotransmitters: dopamine: experience of reinforcement/rewards, novelty-seeking, serotonin: regulates emotion, harm avoidance, low:

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