Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSG (10,000)
PSY (800)

PSY290H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Extracellular Fluid, Striatum, Fear Conditioning

Course Code
Junchul Kim
Study Guide

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 24 pages of the document.
PSY290 Class 1 Notes
Biopsychology: the study of the biology of behavior (a neuroscience of behavior)
- A subdivision of Psychology (behavior) and neuroscience (biology)
- Also called psychobiology, behavioral biology, or behavioral neuroscience.
Major divisions of Biopsychology:
- Physiological psychology
- Psychopharmacology
- Neuropsychology
- Psychophysiology
- Cognitive neuroscience
- Comparative psychology
Each discipline of biopsychology uses a different approach and studies a different aspect of the
nervous system. They collectively informs our understanding of what produces and controls
Other disciplines of neuroscience
- Neuroanatomy
- Neurochemistry
- Neuroendocrinology
- Neuropathology
- Neuropharmacology
- Neurophysiology
These do not directly study behavior. (what distinguishes biopsychology from other disciplines of
What is behavior?
Products of the activities in the nerve system. Include action, emotion, moods, personality, etc.
Important features: Behaviors vary between different species and individuals within a species.
- Variation in behavioral traits are determined by variations in genes and environment.
How do genes shape behaviors?
DNA(gene)---RNA---Protein---Cells(neurons)---Brain(group of neurons and their interconnections)---
Behaviors(actions, responses, emotion, personality, etc.)
- Gene-environment interaction: environments(physical, chemical, biological, social, economical
etc.) interact with gene. (two way street)
DNA (deoxyriboNucleic Acid)
- DNA is made of polymers of a nucleotide.
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- A nucleotide is made of five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), nitrogen containing base, and
phosphate group. (deoxy denotes to a missing oxygen atom in the sugar)
- Nitrogen containing nucleobase: G,A,T, and C.
o G and A belongs to a class of compound called purine (two fused carbon rings)
o C and T to pyrimidine (one carbon ring)
- Phosphate group bind the sugar molecule together in a process called dehydration synthesis
when nucleotides come together to form a DNA molecule.
o DNA backbone: phosphate group+sugar
o Bases: Adenine (Deoxyadenosine), Guanine (Deoxyguanosine), Cytosine (Deoxycytidine),
Thymine (Deoxythymidine).
- Whe a doule staded DNA is foed, the  egio of oe stad ids to the  egio of the
other strand. (i.e. they arranged in an antiparallel fashion)
- Beacuase of the molecular structure of the four nucleobases, adenine always binds with
thymine, and guanine with cytosine.
How much DNA is in one cell?
- Human Genome size = approx. 3 billion base pairs
o 3 billion base pairs are packaged into 23 chromosomes
o Each cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
- About 2 meters of DNA exists in a nucleus (though very thin)
- The average diameter of a nucleus in a human cell is only 10 microns, or 0.01 millimeters.
DNA packaging
find more resources at
find more resources at

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- DNA (negatively charged) bind to histone protein (positively charged) and form compact
o Nucleosome
o Chromatin fiber
o Chromosome
Variance in Gene leads to variance in behavior.
- Each species display a unique set of behaviors
- Behavioral repertoire: the set of behaviors characteristic either of an entire species or of a single
member of a species.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Theory of evolution is based on
- Individuals vary
- The differences are inherited
- Favorable variants will leave more offspring (survival and reproduction of fittest): natural
- These facts create an inevitable process (evolution) that will modify organisms and species over
Evolution and behavior
- Just as physical features can contribute to fitness, so do behaviors.
- Some are obvious: the ability to find food, avoid predation, etc.
- Some are less obvious: social dominance and courtship displays.
Variation in behaviors---competition/selection---survival of fittest---evolution
Class 2 Notes
General layout of the nervous system
Complexity of human brain
- Average human brain weights about 1.3kg
- A network of neurons
o 100 billion neurons
o Each neuron having about 1000 synaptic connections (total 100 trillion connections)
General layout of the nervous system
Nervous system is divided into two main divisions
- Central nervous system (CNS)
o Brain (inside the skull)
o Spinal cord (inside the spine)
find more resources at
find more resources at
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version