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PSY372H1 Study Guide - Connectionism, Visual Cortex, Auditory Cortex

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Jennifer Gagnon

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PSY372H1 Human Memory: Study Note for Test #2 (SS2105)
Lecture 4 (Part I): Non-Declarative Memory
Content: non-declarative / implicit memory
Encoding processes: incidental learning
Retrieval processes: indirect tests of memory
Behavioral manifestation: conditioning / priming / skills
Organizations: 3 sub-systems
Traditional view of the organization of LTM
LTM: (Declarative Memory / Explicit) [Episodic/Semantic] / (Non-Declarative Memory / Implicit)
[Procedural {Basal Ganglia} /Priming {Neurocortex} / Classical Conditioning {Amygdala/Cerebellum}]
- Non-declarative memory: changes in the behavior, rather than remembering the exact information;
- Any form of memory that doesn’t require conscious access; awareness is not needed;
- Tulving “anoetic level of consciousness”;
- Incidental learning: learning without consciousness;
- Indirect tests of memory: learning without consciousness, and also not asked to think back to previous learning
(measures the response time)
Three broad categories of Non-declarative memory
1. Classical Conditioning CS to CR: simplest form of memory; conditioned = learned = memory
- No memory representation; stimulus triggers response (often reflexive); steak-salivation;
- Stimulus-Response associations: the stimulus is directly associated with the response
- Stimulus-Stimulus associations: the CS is directly associated with memory representations of the US; acquired
through contiguity learning (time) OR contingency learning (cause and effect inference)
- Latent Inhibition: repeatedly presenting the CS alone before forming its associations with the US impairs the
capacity to condition CS
- Extinction: If the CS is repeatedly presented without US, production of CS gradually decreases
- There are rules in conditioning; probabilities of CS predicting US
- Clinical use of Extinction: Fear/phobias; unconscious association between a stimulus and feeling of anxiety; a
systematic desensitization: TX goal = Extinction
- Addiction as a learned behavior: complex behavior can be conditioned; fear/drug use
- Advertising as a form of conditioning: improving the evaluation of product by associating pleasant experience to
the product Ex) Stewart et al. and conditioned response to the conditioned toothpaste brand
- Backward conditioning: trace; when CS follows US during training, less conditioning occurs
- Mere-exposure effect: simply increasing one’s exposure to a novel stimulus will increase its rated pleasantness; Ex)
sponsors, proud partners of, friends of
2. Priming: improved performance based on prior exposure, existing representation activated
- Implicitly influence the subsequent perception or processing of material caused by presenting it or a related
stimulus beforehand
- Better/faster if you’ve seen the item before, may not be aware of this; visual/verbal priming occurs
- Amnestic patients demonstrate normal susceptibility to priming
Ex) explicitly asking a patient to remember results in impaired performance
Ex) YouTube video; priming marketing ideas
- Implicit memory = multimodal; activated schema = easier to retrieve?
- Tulving: priming is independent of recognition for word-fragment completion
- Holland: cross-modality; priming is possible

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- Neural signatures of priming: involves a decrease in neural activity in the part of the brain that is processing the
stimulus; recall that for explicit memory, you’ll see an increase during stimulus processing; often occurs in areas of
cortex responsible for that type of perceptual processing; extrastraite cortex, primary visual cortex, and primary
auditory cortex.
- PET blood flow during word-stem completion showed: priming was associated with reduced activity in posterior
perceptual areas Ex) extrastraite occipital cortex; this reduction is known as repetition suppression
3. Procedural Memory: knowledge on how to do things Ex) riding a bike, playing the piano
- LTM; skill acquisition; dissociation between knowing how and knowing what
- No reliance on conscious strategy: Masters’ Choking Study
Ex) Masters’ Choking Study: trained participants in golf putting, 50% demanding attentional task
Testing: half of each groups tested under a stressful condition
Results: learning is somewhat impaired by the concurrent task; those trained with concurrent task were more
resistant to stress; concurrent task reduced reliance on explicit putting strategies, which are prone to disruption.
Implicit -> Stressed Implicit -> Explicit -> Stressed Control -> Non-Stressed Control
- Case of H.M.: proved that there exist different neuro-anatomical network for declarative and non-declarative
Non-declarative: Implications
- Déjà vu; stereotypes: exposure to radically loaded words automatically activated stereotypes students thought they
didn’t have; unintentional plagiarism; advertising: mere-exposure effect
Lecture 4 (Part II): Semantic Memory
Content: Knowledge
Encoding processes: repeated experience
Retrieval processes: semantic tasks
Behavioral manifestation: response time and type
Organizations: categories
Traditional view of the organization of LTM
LTM: (Declarative memory) [Episodic/Sematic]
- General knowledge; shared knowledge; episodic vs. semantic: distinction made by Tulving
- Both conscious/declarative memory; level of consciousness: noetic; X mental travel. X tied to time/place
Tulving revisited: Episodic = Autonoetic; Semantic = Noetic; Procedural = Anoetic
Function of Semantic Memory
- Facilitates learning and remembering; provides framework for interpreting and organizing events;
Allows us to understand current situations and predict the future with higher accuracy
Characteristics of Semantic Memory
- complex: holds a lot of information; takes a long time to develop
- organized: able to retrieve information quickly, organized by meaning (properties of categories, theories of
categories, and ordered relations)
- Can be explicitly recalled (declarative)
- Can automatically and unconsciously influence behavior Ex) Semantic priming
Organization of Semantic Memory: examples of semantic networks
- Look into Collins and Loftus (1975): Knowledge as a hierarchical tree of connected nodes; SAM
- Spreading of Activation Model; when one concept is activated; this activation spreads to related concepts, bringing
them closer to awareness
Semantic Priming: a behavioral demonstration of organization in semantic memory
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