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Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY201H1 Final Exam Notes made by Man Lai HoIntro to Stats4 canons of scienceoDeterminism universe is orderly all events have meaningful systematic causesTheories Statements about causal relation between 2more variablesVariables characteristiccondition that changes or has different values for different individulasoEmpiricism Figuring out orderly principles by collecting datamaking observationsData measurementsobservationsData set collection of measurementsobservationsDatum single measurementobservation scoreraw scoreoParsimony Observation explanations in simplest possible wayoTestability scientific theories should be testable using research techniques fallibilityStatistics set of mathematical procedures for organizing summarizing and interpreting infoDescriptive statistics Statistical procedures used to summarize organize simply dataoSample set of individuals selected from population intended to represent population in studyStatistic value that describes a sampleInferential statistics Statistical techniques that allow us to study samples and make generalizations about populations from which they were selectedoPopulation set of all individuals of interest in particular studyParameter value that describes populationOne sample two scoresoCorrelational methodMeasure 2 variables for each individual look for consistent patterns in dataoPrePost studies TimequasiindependentSame variable measured twice for each individualTwo samples one scoreoComparing nonequivalent groupsCompare preexisting groups on the variable of interestQuasiindependent variable independent variable used to create different groups of scores in nonexperimental studyoExperimental MethodCorrelational and nonexperimental research designs lack Manipulation random assignmentRelationship between variables is examined by manipulating IV independent variable then measuringDV dependent variable to obtain scores for each groupExperimental condition individuals who receive experimental treatmentControl condition individuals who do not receive treatmentreceive placebo Provides baseline for comparison with experimentalDemonstrates causeandeffect between IV and DVConfound variables participant variables environmental variablesControl confounding variablesoRandom assignment distribute characteristics evenlyoMatching ensure equivalent groupsenvironmentsoHolding them constant variablesBEDMASPSY201H1 Final Exam Notes made by Man Lai Ho
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