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Lecture 11 (last) - Ch 11. The t test for Two Related Samples

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University of Toronto St. George
Alison Luby

PSY201H1F L11 last Dec 1 20119 subjects w DS9 healthy controlsMatched on handedness can impact which Ch11 The ttest for Two Related Samplesbrain hemisphere is dominant for speech processingage Introduction to Repeated Measures Designs Losin et al 2009 American Journal on 111IntellectualDevelopmental DisabilitiesOutlineSo far you have learned that1A tstatistic rather than zscore is used for AdvantagesDisadvantages of Repeated hypothesis testing when pops variance or Measures Designs 114standard dev is unknown Ch 92Indepmeasures ttest is used to statistically Advantages of RepeatedMeasures RM ttestscompare difs in means btwn 2 grps of Usually advantageous over indepmeasures IM tparticipants representing 2 dif pops or btwn 2 tests becausetreatment conditns when each condition uses 1Fewer participants needed in RM designs a dif sample of participants Ch 10because each participant is measured in both conditns need 2x as many participants in IM Repeated Measures Designsdesigns to get same number of data ptsAKA withinsubject designs2Wellsuited for developmental or Uses 1 sample of participantsmeasures each of learningtraining studies or for studying any them in each treatment condition ie more than process that changes over timeonce on same dep variableLiterally repeating measurements of dep variable 3Since each indiv is compared to himherself in on same sampleRM designseliminates problem of indiv difs Very common technique in psychologybtwn samples in IM designs that can influence Indepdif samples same treatmentmeasurementspotentially lead to false Relatedsame sample dif treatmentsconclusions4RM designs are usually more statistically Examplespowerful than IM designsImportant to Longitudinal Developmental Studiesunderstandwill be discussed later in more Track same children to determine how their detailreasoning skills change w age measure in Gr 1 Disadvantage of Repeated Measures Designs again in Gr 2Outside effects can influence measurementsTraining StudiesdisadvantageHow does musical training affect auditory Each participant measured in 2 dif conditns processing usually taking place at 2 dif timesEveryone in sample undergoes pretraining Can lead to Order Effects eg the participant baseline auditory test while measuring brain nd becomes bored or tired in the 2treatment activity then 1 yr of music lessons followed by because heshe had completed this test a posttraining auditory testbrain activity previouslymeasurementEx boredom if do high stress test before low Compare preposttraining brain activitystress testMay cause false effects to appear in data MatchedSubjects DesignsEx worse performance in Treatment 2 not 2 samples but each indiv in Sample 1 is matched w an indiv in Sample 2because of treatment itself but because of Ex matching based on IQ age gender socioboredomeconomic status education etcMatching must be onetooneplanned so ideally Counterbalancing to control for Order Effectsrecruit each pair of matched participants at same Randomly assignparticipants to time to take part in studyCounterbalance Grp 1otherto Goal Simulate RM design as closely as possibleCounterbalance Grp 2RMmatchedsubjects designs are types of Grp 1 Treatment 1 then Treatment 2relatedsamples designsuse same tstatistic Grp 2 Treatment 2 then Treatment 1stformulaReceiving a particular treatment 1 shouldnt Commonly used in clinical research to match influencedata if treatments are patients w healthy controlscounterbalanced across subjectsExampleIndivs w Down Syndrome usually suffer from The t Statistic for a RepeatedMeasures Design severe speechlanguage processing deficits112How does brain activity related to story Similar to singlesample tstatistic Ch 9 but 1 listening differ btwn patients w DShealthy additional first stepyoung adults
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