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Textbook notes Ch 12, 13, 8 (midterm 3)

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University of Toronto St. George

Chapter 12: Substance Use Disorders -Addictive Behav: Need for a substance activity -Psychoactive drugs affect mental functioning -Addictionsubstance related disorders divided into 2 groups 1. Those that involve organic impairment, resulting from the prolonged & excessive ingestion of psychoactive substances (ie. Korsakoffs syndrome) 2. Substance induced organic mental disorders & syndromes; physiological changes in brain due to vitamin deficiency; most fall into this category -Substance Abuse: (1) Hazardous behav, such as driving while drunk (2) Continued use aside from socialpsychhealth problems -Substance Dependent: more sever forms of substance use disorder, involves marked physiological need for increasing amounts of substance to achieve desire effects. Dependence: indiv will show a tolerance for a drug & experience withdrawal when unavailable ALCOHOL ABUSE & DEPENDENCE -Alch is a nervous system stimulant & depressant -Alcohol dependence syndrome: A state psychic & also usually physical, resulting from taking alcohol, characterized by behavioural & other responses that always include a compulsion to take alcohol on a continuous or periodic basis in order to experience its psychic effects, & sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence; tolerance may or may not be present -PrevalenceComorbidityDemographics Lifetime: 12% Life span of abusersdependence is 12 years shorter than normal Heavy drinking associated w. partner violence Lowers cognitiveproblem solving performance Brain shrinkage in ppl w. alcohol dependence 37% suffer from a mental disorder Occurs often w. personality disorder Binge drinker: Boy = 5 drinks, Girl = 4 drinks on 1 occasion 2 weeks 5:1 ratio Marriage, education, being older associated w. lower alcoholism -Clinical Picture of Alcohol Abuse & Dependence Causes decreased sexual inhibition, lower sexual performance, blackouts, lapses of memory Hangovers: Headaches, nausea, fatigue Effects on brain: At lower levels of alcohol it activates brain pleasurable areas releasing opioids. At higher levels, it depresses brain functioning, inhibiting brains glutamate slowing down activity in parts of brain, impairs judgment, self-control; experiences sense of warmth, expansiveness, well-being, self- esteem rise, worries temp. left behind Development of alch dependence: early to middle to late stage; consumption by mother during pregnancy Physical Effects: 5-10% eliminated from breathurinesweat the rest by work of liver, but in large amounts liver is overworked causing damages (15-30% cirrhosis); high calorie drug; can suffer from malnutrition; stomach problems Psychosocial Effects: Chronic fatigue, oversensivity, depression; impaired reasoning, poor judgment, personality deterioration, inappropriate behav, loses pride in appearance, neglects family, touchy, irritable, unwillingly to discuss problem, cant hold job, marital breakup Psychosis Associated w. sever alch abuse: Ppl who have been drinking over a long period of time, brain lesion causes confusionexcitementdelirium which lasts 3-6 days followed by deep sleep; temp loss of reality Full Blown Symptoms of Alcoholic Psychosis (1) Disorientation for time & place (2) Vivid hallucinations (3) Acute fear (4) Extreme suggestibility (5) Tremors (6) Perspiration, weak heartbeat, coated tongue, foul breath Drugs help withdrawal delirium Alcohol amnesic disorder Korsakoffs syndrome: memory defect, falsification of eventsconfabulation, delirious, delusional, disorientated for time & place, impairments in planning, judgment, intellect, emotions deficits; vitamin B deficiency; memory restored w. abstinence Biological Factors in Abuse of & Dependence on Alch & Other Substances -Feelings of award & pleasure -Role of genetic inheritance& environmental factors 13 have parents w. problem, runs in families Adopted children at young ages didnt develop it like their parents Asians have alch flush Exposure to it plays a role Neurobiology of Addiction Mesocorticolimbi Dopamine Pathway: centre of psychoactive drug activation in brain; involved in control of emotions, memory, gratification; alch produces euphoria by stimulating this area -Psychosocial Causal Factors in Alcohol Abuse & Dependence Socially dependent to enjoy social situations -Failures in Parental Guidance Unstable families Parent substance use associated w. early adolescent substance use Negative parental models, lack of monitoring, stress & (-) affect, stressful childhood experiences -Psychological Vulnerability Alcoholic Personality emotionally immature, expect great deal of world, require praise & appreciation, low frustration tolerance, unsure of abilities to fulfill expected roles Link w. antisocial personality, depression, schizophrenia, conduct disorder, aggression Relationship btw depressive disorders & alcohol abuse stronger in women -Stress, Tension Reduction & Reinforcement Drink to relax (Tension-Reduction Hypothesis) -Expectations of Social Success Young adolescents expect that it will lower tension & anxiety & increase sexual pleasure in life Reciprocal influence model: Adolescents begin drinking due to expectations that itll increase popularity & acceptance by their peers Time & experience are moderating variables, older students showed less expectations than froshes
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